Brain Lobes and Effects of Stroke
The abilities that will be lost or changed by a stroke depend on the amount
of damage and the location of the stroke in the brain. The brain is divided
into four lobes, frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital. Each lobe in the
brain controls different functions or skills. A stroke in a particular lobe
may cause problems with some or all of the symptoms listed below.
Insular Cortex is under here
The cerebellum controls many of our reflexes and much of our balance and
coordination. A stroke that takes place in the cerebellum can cause
abnormal reflexes of the head and torso, coordination and balance problems,
dizziness, nausea and vomiting.
Symptoms include these listed below.
ξ Difficulty moving or feeling sensation in all four limbs.
ξ Clumsiness in an arm or leg, or unsteady walking or movement.
ξ Difficulty forming words.
ξ Eyes may look in different directions, gaze may be shaky, may be
unable to see in one or more directions.
Brain Stem Stroke (Midbrain, Pons, Medulla)
Strokes that occur in the brain stem are especially destructive. The brain
stem is the area of the brain that controls our heart rate, breathing, and blood
pressure. The brain stem also helps control eye movement, hearing, speech,
Since all brain activity in both halves of the brain must go through the brain
stem on their way to the arms and legs, patients with a brain stem stroke
may not be able to move part or all of their bodies.
ξ fine muscle
ξ pain perception
ξ processing of
ξ telling right
ξ blood pressure
Insular cortex is under here
Protection of the Brain
Since the brain is responsible for so many vital functions, it needs to be well
ξ Skull – bony covering over the brain.
ξ Cerebral Spinal Fluid (CSF) – fluid that flows through the ventricles
or spaces of the brain and around the spinal cord. This is like a fluid
cushion for the brain, which acts as a shock absorber. About one quart
of CSF is being produced a day by special cells just outside the brain
tissue. Sometimes the flow of the CSF gets blocked, causing
intracranial pressure (ICP) to increase.
ξ Meninges – protective layers that cover the brain and spinal cord.
o Dura Mater – tough, outer layer near skull.
o Arachnoid – thin and delicate middle layer which contains blood
o Pia Mater – innermost layer that covers the brain, which also
contains blood vessels.
ξ “Spaces” between the Meninges
o Epidural – “space” between skull and dura mater.
o Subdural – “space” between dura mater and arachnoid layer.
o Subarachnoid – “space” between the arachnoid layer and pia
mater, where CSF flows.
Your health care team may have given you this information as part of your care. If so, please use it and call
if you have any questions. If this information was not given to you as part of your care, please check with
your doctor. This is not medical advice. This is not to be used for diagnosis or treatment of any medical
condition. Because each person’s health needs are different, you should talk with your doctor or others on
your health care team when using this information. If you have an emergency, please call 911. Copyright ©
6/2016 University of Wisconsin Hospitals and Clinics Authority. All rights reserved. Produced by the
Department of Nursing HF#5593