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Clinical Hub,Patient Education,Health and Nutrition Facts For You,Medication Instructions

Food-Drug Interactions: Corticosteroids (5332)

Food-Drug Interactions: Corticosteroids (5332) - Clinical Hub, Patient Education, Health and Nutrition Facts For You, Medication Instructions

5332


Food-Drug Interactions: Corticosteroids



Corticosteroids, also known as steroids, are
a group of hormones used to control
problems with inflammation and the body’s
immune system. They also are involved in
balancing the body’s water, salt and
potassium.

When taking corticosteroids like prednisone
for more than a month, you may retain water,
gain weight and have an increased appetite.
Long-term use may also weaken your bones.

Do I really need to watch my salt (sodium)
intake?
A high salt intake can increase water retention
and increase loss of calcium in your urine.

To prevent “holding” water, decrease your salt
(sodium) intake.
ξ Avoid salt and salty foods. If it tastes
salty it has too much salt!
ξ Limit the amount of processed foods
like frozen dinners, packaged entrees,
and canned soups.
ξ Restrict your intake of salted or
smoked meat or fish. Avoid luncheon
meats, bratwurst, and bacon.
ξ Try herbs and spices such as garlic or
onion powder instead of garlic salt or
onion salt. Use salt free spice mixes
and marinades such as Mrs. Dash®.
ξ Read food labels to pick the products
lowest in salt.
ξ Be careful using condiments that are
high in salt like catsup, pickles, relish
and sauerkraut.






Will my weight change?
You may feel hungrier while taking
corticosteroids. If you do not want to gain
weight, you may have to control the amount of
calories and fat you eat. Eat only at meal
times and limit your portion sizes. If you are
still hungry, fill up on raw vegetables and
fresh fruits. Try eating a tossed salad with a
low calorie dressing before lunch and dinner
to help slow down your intake of other high
calorie foods.

How can I prevent problems with my
bones?
To prevent bone weakness and fractures you
will need to increase your calcium and
Vitamin D intake. Steroids increase bone
loss, decrease your body’s ability to make
bones, and decrease the amount of calcium
your body can absorb. Exercise helps keep
your bones strong. Get out and walk to help
keep your bones and muscles in good shape.

What are good food sources of calcium
and Vitamin D?
Milk and milk products like yogurt, aged
cheeses, and milkshakes are the best food
sources of calcium and Vitamin D. Your
doctor or dietitian may also suggest that you
take extra calcium with Vitamin D or a
multivitamin. This is especially important if
you do not tolerate milk or dairy products.
Calcium fortified orange juice can also
increase your intake of calcium. Liquid
supplements (Ensure®, Boost®, Carnation
Instant Breakfast® or Scandishakes®) are
good sources of calcium and Vitamin D, but
may contain more calories than you need.




Food Sources of Vitamin D
Food Amount Vitamin D
International Units
Cod Liver Oil 1 teaspoon 455
Salmon 3 ounces 309
Mackerel 3 ounces 296
Shitake mushrooms, dried 4 249
Tuna, canned 3 ounces 200
Sardines, canned in oil and
drained
1 ¾ ounces 250
Quaker Nutrition for Women
Instant Oatmeal
1 packet 154
Milk (whole, reduced fat or
nonfat) Vitamin D fortified
8 ounces 98
Soy Milk, fortified with
Vitamin D
8 ounces 100
Shiitake Mushrooms, fresh 3.5 ounces 100
Orange Juice, fortified with
Vitamin D
4 ounces 50-65
Cereal, fortified 1 serving (3/4-1 cup) 40-50
Egg yolk from hens fed
Vitamin D
1 20
Liver, beef 3 ounces 13
Cheese, Swiss 1 ounce 12

How much protein do I need?
While taking corticosteroids, you need to
make sure you eat enough protein. Milk,
meats, eggs, peanut butter, nuts, tofu, dried
beans or peas are high in protein. If your
kidneys are working well, you should get at
least 2-3 meat servings a day.

Will eating sugar cause problems?
In some patients, long-term use of
corticosteroids raises blood sugar levels. If
your blood sugar level is above normal, talk
with your dietitian or doctor. They may
suggest diet changes or insulin therapy. You
may be able to improve your blood sugar
levels by avoiding sugar-containing
beverages and fruit juices, and being careful
to avoid eating more calories than your body
needs.

What do I need to know about Potassium?
You may need more potassium in your diet
while taking prednisone. These are good
sources of potassium: bananas, oranges and
orange juice, cantaloupe, Carnation Instant
Breakfast®, beans (chili, kidney, refried,
etc.), potatoes, Boost®, prunes, milk,
tomatoes, tomato juice, V-8®, winter squash,
ScandiShake®.
Is it okay to use Dietary Supplements,
such as, herbal products?
Some dietary supplements can damage the
liver, interact with your other medicines or
cause other side effects. Be sure to tell your
doctor if you are taking anything in addition to
your prescribed medicines. Let them know
about all over the counter medications and
diet supplements.

Vitamin D Requirements and
Supplements
ξ Standard vitamin supplements
usually provide 400 International
Units of
Vitamin D. This level meets the
needs of most people.
ξ However, during treatment with
steroids, it is recommended that most
patients take 800 International Units
of Vitamin D per day.
ξ Patients over 70 years old should
take 1000 International Units
Vitamin D per day.




Liquid Vitamin D³ (Cholecalciferol) Supplements
Supplement Vitamin D
(International Units=IU)
Comments
Ddrops® 400, 1000 & 2000/drop www.carlsonlabs.com
Gluten-free
Enfamil D-Vi-Sol® 400 IU/drop Gluten-free
Life Time Liquid Vitamin
D3
1000 IU &
4000 IU (High Potency)
per Tablespoon
www.iherb.com
No gluten, milk, soy, or egg
Contains agave nectar
Wellesse Liquid Vitamin D3 500 IU/teaspoon Berry Flavored
No artificial flavors/colors
Carlson for Kids Cod Liver
Oil Lemon Flavored

200 IU Vitamin D
425 IU Vitamin A
5 IU Vitamin E
550 mg Omega-3
(DHA/ARA/ALA)
Per ½ teaspoon
www.carlsonlabs.com
Free of detectable levels of
mercury, cadmium, lead,
PCB's and 28 other
contaminants
Note: The Fish Oil has
Vitamin A & D removed

Vitamin D³ (Cholecalciferol) Supplements
Supplement Vitamin D3
(International Units=IU)
Comments
Finest Natural 1000 IU per soft gel No gluten, lactose, artificial
colors
Freeda

400, 1000 and 3000
International Units (IU) per
Tablet

www.freedavitamins.com
Kosher. No gluten, yeast,
dairy, animal products,
artificial flavors and colors,
nuts, and sugar
Kirkman Labs

400 IU – Hypoallergenic
1000 IU– Hypoallergenic
Per Capsule

www.kirkmanlabs.com
No gluten, sugar, starch,
wheat, casein, milk, corn,
preservative, yeast, gelatin,
flavoring or color
Nature’s Made® 400, 1000, and 2000 IU Tablet or soft gels (gluten-
free)
Chewable in 400 IU (call
regarding gluten status)
Nordic Naturals 1000 IU Soft gels with olive oil
Solar D Gems 2000 & 4000 IU per soft gel
115 mg Omega 3’s
1 IU Vitamin E
www.carlsonlabs.com
Contains cod liver oil



What do I need to know about Calcium
Supplements?
ξ Ask your pharmacist to assist you in
finding an appropriate supplement.
ξ Calcium carbonate requires stomach
acids, so should be consumed with
food at the end of the meal. Calcium
carbonate should not used if you are
taking antacid medications. Some
people have increase gas, bloating or
constipation with larger amounts.
ξ Calcium citrate can be taken between
meals. Calcium citrate contains half
the amount of elemental calcium as
calcium carbonate so the pills will be
larger to provide the same amount of
calcium
ξ Your body can only absorb 500-600
mg of Calcium at a time. If your
doctor wants you to take 1000 mg of
calcium per day, divide the dose and
take 500 mg twice daily for
maximum absorption.
ξ Do not use bonemeal or dolomite as
a source of calcium. They may
contain lead.
ξ Look for “USP” on the label or
“United States Pharmacopoeia”
which have standards that require
that the supplement contains less
than 3 parts per million of lead. It
also means that the supplement has
been tested and will dissolve
properly in normal stomach acid.

Calcium Requirements
Children
Age
Adequate
Intake
While Taking
Prednisone
0-6 months 210 mg 400 mg
6-12 months 270 mg 600 mg
1-3 years 500 mg 800 mg
4-8 years 800 mg 1200 mg
9-18 years 1300 mg 1500 mg

Adults
Age (years)
Adequate
Intake
While Taking
Prednisone
19-50 1000 mg 1500 mg
51-70 1200 mg 1500 mg
>70 1200 mg 1500 mg


Calcium Supplements [Note: some also contain Vitamin D]
Name Elemental
Calcium
(mg)
Vitamin D3
(Internation
al
Units = IU)
Form of
Calcium
Comments
Caltrate 600+D 600/ Tablet 400 Calcium
Carbonate
No gluten ingredients; not
tested
Caltrate 600+D Plus
Minerals (Chewable
or Tablets)
600/
Chewable
400

Calcium
Carbonate
No gluten ingredients; not
tested; chewable contains
soy
Citracal Maximum 315/ Caplet 250 Calcium
Citrate
Gluten-Free
Citracal Regular
250mg + D
250/ Tablet 200 Calcium
Citrate
Gluten-Free
Citracal Petites + D 200/ Tablet 250 Calcium
Citrate
Gluten-Free
Citracal Kosher 200/ Tablet 0 Calcium
Citrate
Gluten-Free


Kirkman
Calcium Magnesium
Liquid
200 mg
Calcium/
teaspoon
25 Calcium
Carbonate
www.kirkmanlabs.com
125 mg Magnesium
Gluten/Allergen-Free
Kirkman
250mg + D
250/
Chewable
80 Calcium
Carbonate
www.kirkmanlabs.com

Kirkman Calcium +
D3 Powder
(Flavored)
333/
¼ teaspoon
58 Calcium
Carbonate
& Calcium
Citrate
www.kirkmanlabs.com
Gluten/Allergen-Free
Contains sorbitol, natural
chocolate flavor & stevia
Kirkman Calcium +
D3 Powder
(Unflavored)
500/
¼ teaspoon
88 Calcium
Carbonate
& Calcium
Citrate
www.kirkmanlabs.com
Gluten/Allergen-Free
Os-Cal 500 + D 500/ Tablet 200 Calcium
Carbonate
Gluten-Free
Os-Cal 500 + Extra
D
500/ Tablet 400 Calcium
Carbonate
Gluten-Free
Os-Cal Chewable 500/
Chewable
400 Calcium
Carbonate
Gluten-Free
Tums
Regular
200/
Chewable
0 Calcium
Carbonate
Gluten-Free
Tums E-X 750 300/
Chewable
0 Calcium
Carbonate
Gluten-Free
Tums for Kids 300/
Chewable
0 Calcium
Carbonate
Contains Gluten

Tums Smoothies 300/
Chewable
0 Calcium
Carbonate
Contains Gluten, Milk,
and Soy
Tums Ultra
1000
400/
Chewable
0 Calcium
Carbonate
Gluten-Free
Viactiv
Calcium Soft Chews
500/ Soft
Chewable
500 Calcium
Carbonate
40 mcg Vitamin K
Flavors: Milk Chocolate,
Caramel, Raspberry,
Chocolate Mint;
Gluten-Free

Teach Back:
What is the most important thing you learned from this handout?

What changes will you make in your diet/lifestyle, based on what you learned today?

If you are a UW Health patient and have more questions please contact UW Health at one of the
phone numbers listed below. You can also visit our website at www.uwhealth.org/nutrition

Nutrition clinics for UW Hospital and Clinics (UWHC) and American Family Children’s
Hospital (AFCH) can be reached at: (608) 890-5500

Nutrition clinics for UW Medical Foundation (UWMF) can be reached at:
(608) 287-2770

The Spanish version of this Health Facts for You is #6005

Your health care team may have given you this information as part of your care. If so, please use it and call if you
have any questions. If this information was not given to you as part of your care, please check with your doctor. This
is not medical advice. This is not to be used for diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. Because each
person’s health needs are different, you should talk with your doctor or others on your health care team when using
this information. If you have an emergency, please call 911. Copyright © 6/2016 University of Wisconsin Hospitals
and Clinics Authority. All rights reserved. Produced by the Department of Nursing. HF#5332.