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WHODAS Manual

WHODAS Manual - Clinical Hub, UW Health Clinical Tool Search, UW Health Clinical Tool Search, Questionnaires, Related


Measuring
Health�and�Disability
Manual�for�WHO�Disability�Assessment�Schedule
WHODAS 2.0
Editors
TB Üstün, N Kostanjsek,
S Chatterji, J Rehm
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ii��Measuring Health and Disability: WHODAS 2.0
WHO Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data
Measuring Health and Disability: Manual for WHO Disability Assessment Schedule (WHODAS 2.0) / edited by TB
Üstün, N Kostanjsek, S Chatterji, J Rehm.
1.Disability evaluation. 2.Health status. 3.Human development. 4.Classification. 5.Manuals. I.World Health Organi-
zation.
ISBN 978 92 4 154759 8 (NLM classification: W 15)
World Health Organization 2010
All rights reserved. Publications of the World Health Organization can be obtained from WHO Press, World Health
Organization, 20 Avenue Appia, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland (tel.: +41 22 791 3264; fax: +41 22 791 4857; e-
mail: bookorders@who.int). Requests for permission to reproduce or translate WHO publications – whether for
sale or for noncommercial distribution – should be addressed to WHO Press, at the above address (fax: +41 22
791 4806; e-mail: permissions@who.int).
The designations employed and the presentation of the material in this publication do not imply the expression of
any opinion whatsoever on the part of the World Health Organization concerning the legal status of any country,
territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. Dotted lines on
maps represent approximate border lines for which there may not yet be full agreement.
The mention of specific companies or of certain manufacturers’ products does not imply that they are endorsed or
recommended by the World Health Organization in preference to others of a similar nature that are not mentioned.
Errors and omissions excepted, the names of proprietary products are distinguished by initial capital letters.
All reasonable precautions have been taken by the World Health Organization to verify the information contained
in this publication. However, the published material is being distributed without warranty of any kind, either
expressed or implied. The responsibility for the interpretation and use of the material lies with the reader. In no
event shall the World Health Organization be liable for damages arising from its use.
The named editors alone are responsible for the views expressed in this publication.
Printed in Malta
Technical editing: Hilary Cadman, Biotext, Canberra, Australia
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�iii
Contents
Preface .................................................................................................................................................. v
Abbreviations and acronyms .................................................................................................................vii
Part I Background ................................................................................................................. 1
1 Introduction .................................................................................................................................. 3
1.1 Why is disability assessment important? ........................................................................... 3
1.2 Why develop a method to assess disability? ..................................................................... 3
1.3 What is WHODAS 2.0? ..................................................................................................... 4
1.4 Why use WHODAS 2.0? ................................................................................................... 5
1.5 Purpose and structure of the manual ................................................................................ 8
2 WHODAS 2.0 development ....................................................................................................... 11
2.1 Rationale and conceptual background for the development of WHODAS 2.0 ............... 11
2.2 Relation with WHO Quality of Life instrument ................................................................. 12
2.3 Process of development of WHODAS 2.0 ....................................................................... 12
2.4 Final structure of WHODAS 2.0 ....................................................................................... 16
3 Psychometric properties of WHODAS 2.0 ................................................................................. 19
3.1 Test–retest reliability and internal consistency ................................................................ 19
3.2 Factor structure ............................................................................................................... 20
3.3 Cross-cultural sensitivity to change ................................................................................. 21
3.4 Item-response characteristics .......................................................................................... 22
3.5 Validity ............................................................................................................................. 22
3.6 WHODAS 2.0 in the general population .......................................................................... 25
4 Uses of WHODAS 2.0 ............................................................................................................... 27
4.1 Applications of WHODAS 2.0 .......................................................................................... 27
4.2 Further development of WHODAS 2.0 ........................................................................... 31
Part 2 Practical aspects of administering and scoring WHODAS 2.0 ............................ 35
5 Administering WHODAS 2.0 ......................................................................................................37
5.1 Access and conditions of use for WHODAS 2.0 and its translations ............................... 37
5.2 Modes of administering WHODAS 2.0 ............................................................................ 37
5.3 Training in the use of WHODAS 2.0 ............................................................................... 38
6 Scoring of WHODAS 2.0 ........................................................................................................... 41
6.1 WHODAS 2.0 summary scores ....................................................................................... 41
6.2 WHODAS 2.0 domain scores ......................................................................................... 42
6.3 WHODAS 2.0 population norms ...................................................................................... 42
6.4 WHODAS 2.0 item scores ............................................................................................... 45
6.5 Handling missing data within WHODAS 2.0 .................................................................... 45
7 Question-by-question specifications .......................................................................................... 47
7.1 Questions A1–A5: Demographic and background information ........................................ 47
7.2 Questions D1.1–D1.6: The six domains .......................................................................... 48
7.3 Questions F1–F5: Face sheet ......................................................................................... 55
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iv��Measuring Health and Disability: WHODAS 2.0
7.4 Questions H1–H3: Effect of difficulties ............................................................................ 55
7.5 Questions S1–S12: Short-form questions ....................................................................... 56
8 Syntax for automatic computation of overall score using SPSS ................................................ 59
9 Guidelines and exercises for use of WHODAS 2.0 ................................................................... 63
9.1 Interviewer-administered version specifications .............................................................. 63
9.2 Typographical conventions .............................................................................................. 64
9.3 Using flashcards .............................................................................................................. 66
9.4 Asking the questions ....................................................................................................... 66
9.5 Clarifying unclear responses ........................................................................................... 67
9.6 Recording data ................................................................................................................ 69
9.7 Problems and solutions ................................................................................................... 71
10 Test yourself .............................................................................................................................. 73
10.1 Test yourself: Questions .................................................................................................. 73
10.2 Test yourself: Answers .................................................................................................... 78
Glossary ............................................................................................................................................... 79
References ........................................................................................................................................... 83
Part 3 WHODAS 2.0 VERSIONS ......................................................................................... 89
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v
Preface
The World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule (WHODAS 2.0) is a generic assess-
ment instrument developed by WHO to provide a standardized method for measuring health and disabil-
ity across cultures. It was developed from a comprehensive set of International Classification of
Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) items that are sufficiently reliable and sensitive to measure the
difference made by a given intervention. This is achieved by assessing the same individual before and
after the intervention. A series of systematic field studies was used to determine the schedule’s cross-
cultural applicability, reliability and validity, as well as its utility in health services research. WHODAS 2.0
was found to be useful for assessing health and disability levels in the general population through sur-
veys and for measuring the clinical effectiveness and productivity gains from interventions.
This manual summarizes the methodology used to develop WHODAS 2.0 and the findings obtained
when the schedule was applied to certain areas of general health, including mental and neurological dis-
orders. The manual will be useful to any researcher or clinician wishing to use WHODAS 2.0 in their prac-
tice. It includes the seven versions of WHODAS 2.0, which differ in length and intended mode of
administration. It also provides general population norms; these allow WHODAS 2.0 values for certain
subpopulations to be compared with those for the general population.
The manual is aimed at public health professionals, doctors, other health professionals (e.g. rehabilita-
tion professionals, physical therapists and occupational therapists), health-policy planners, social scien-
tists and other individuals involved in studies on disability and health. It may be of particular interest to
general health workers, but also to psychiatrists, psychologists, neurologists and addiction health
workers, because it places mental health and addiction problems on an equal basis with other areas of
general health.
The development of WHODAS 2.0 would not have been possible without the extensive support of many
people from different parts of the world, who devoted a great deal of time and energy to the project, and
organized resources within an international network. Here, we acknowledge the leading centres, orga-
nizations and individuals, and would like to also thank the many other individuals who assisted in differ-
ent aspects of this large project, which spanned more than 10 years. Further information on the project
team is available on the WHODAS 2.0 web site.
1
WHODAS 2.0 collaborative investigators
The main collaborative investigators, listed by country, were as follows:
Gavin Andrews (Australia), Thomas Kugener (Austria), Kruy Kim Hourn (Cambodia), Yao Guizhong
(China), Jesús Saiz (Cuba), Venos Malvreas (Greece), R Srinivasan Murty (India, Bangalore), R Thara
(India, Chennai), Hemraj Pal (India, Delhi), Ugo Nocentini and Matilde Leonardi (Italy), Miyako Tazaki
(Japan), Elia Karam (Lebanon), Charles Pull (Luxembourg), Hans Wyirand Hoek (The Netherlands), AO
Odejide (Nigeria), José Luis Segura Garcia (Peru), Radu Vrasti (Romania), José Luis Vásquez Barquero
(Spain), Adel Chaker (Tunisia), Berna Ulug (Turkey), Nick Glozier (United Kingdom), Michael von Korff,
Katherine McGonagle and Patrick Doyle (United States of America).
Task Force on Assessment Instruments
The task force included Elizabeth Badley, Cille Kennedy, Ronald Kessler, Michael von Korff, Martin
Prince, Karen Ritchie, Ritu Sadana, Gregory Simon, Robert Trotter and Durk Wiersma.
1
http://www.who.int/whodas
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vi��Measuring Health and Disability: WHODAS 2.0
WHO/National Institutes for Health Joint Project on Assessment and Classification of
Disability
The main people involved in the WHO/National Institutes of Health (NIH) Joint Project on Assessment
and Classification of Disability, listed by institution, were as follows: Darrel Regier, Cille Kennedy, Gray-
son Norquist and Kathy Magruder (National Institute of Mental Health, NIMH); Robert Battjes and Bob
Fletcher (National Institute on Drug Abuse, NIDA); and Bridget Grant (National Institute on Alcohol
Abuse and Alcoholism, NIAAA).
In addition to the editors, several WHO staff and consultants were part of the WHO/NIH Joint Project;
notably, Shekhar Saxena and Joanne Epping-Jordan played key roles. Moreover, we gratefully acknowl-
edge the editorial assistance received from Jayne Lux, Cille Kennedy, Sarah Perini, Rueya Kocalevent
and Dan Chisholm, as well as statistical assistance from Ulrich Frick and Luis Prieto.
TB Üstün, N Kostanjsek, S Chatterji, J Rehm
Editors
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�vii
Abbreviations and acronyms
BAI Barthel’s Index of Activities of Daily Living
CAR cross-cultural applicability research
CIDI composite international diagnostic interview
FIM functional independence measure
GP general practitioner
ICC intra-class correlation coefficient
ICF International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health
ICF-CY International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health Children and
Youth version
ICIDH International Classification of Impairments, Disabilities, and Handicaps
LHS London Handicap Scale
PCM partial credit model
SCAN Schedules for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry
SF-12 Medical Outcomes Study 12-Item Short-Form Health Survey
SF-36 Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey
WHO World Health Organization
WHODAS 2.0 WHO Disability Assessment Schedule
WHOQOL WHO Quality of Life
WHOQOL-BREF WHO Quality of Life Brief Scale
WHS World Health Survey
WMHS World Mental Health Survey
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viii��Measuring Health and Disability: WHODAS 2.0
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Part I
Background
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2�Measuring Health and Disability: WHODAS 2.0
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�3
1 Introduction
1.1 Why is disability assessment important?
Knowing what disease a patient has requires application of the fine art and science of diagnosis. This
knowledge helps to guide treatment interventions and management strategies; it can also help to predict
outcome and prognosis to a certain extent. However, although diagnosis is valuable, on its own, it is not
sufficient for understanding the full picture and the lived experience of a patient; the adage “there are no
diseases, but patients” applies.
Just as important as the disease label itself is whether a person can work and carry out the routine ac-
tivities necessary to fulfil his or her roles at home, work, school or in other social areas. Summed up by
the phrase “what people cannot do when they are ill”, this aspect differs greatly, independently of the
disease concerned. Information on functioning (i.e. an objective performance in a given life domain) and
disability is taken into account by professionals in clinical and social services; however, proper measure-
ment of functioning and disability has long suffered from a lack of consistent definitions and tools. Defin-
ing death and disease is easy, but defining disability is difficult, as is measuring it.
Disability is a major health issue. When global assessments are made for burden of disease, more than
half of the burden of premature mortality is due to overall disability (1). People generally seek health ser-
vices because a disease makes it difficult for them to do what they used to do beforehand (i.e. because
they are disabled) rather than because they have a disease. Health-care providers consider a case to
be clinically significant when it limits a person’s daily activities, and they use disability information as the
basis of their evaluation and planning.
For public health purposes, disability has become as important as mortality. Although health-care ad-
vances have reduced mortality, the associated increase in longevity has led to a corresponding increase
in chronic diseases that need to be managed lifelong, and special needs are emerging for the care of
aged populations. Public health has to move beyond mortality and take into account disability, to set pri-
orities, measure outcomes and evaluate the effectiveness and performance of health systems. Box 1.1
summarizes the importance of disability assessment.
1.2 Why develop a method to assess disability?
It is difficult to define and measure disability, because disability is related to many life areas, and involves
interactions between the person and his or her environment. The World Health Organization (WHO)
Project on Assessment and Classification of Human Functioning, Disability and Health brought together
representatives of more than 100 countries, researchers and consumers in an international collabora-
tion, to produce the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) as a consen-
sus framework (2).
The ICF takes each function of an individual – at body, person or society level – and provides a definition
for its operational assessment, and defines disability as “a decrement in each functioning domain” (2).
However, the ICF is impractical for assessing and measuring disability in daily practice; therefore, WHO
developed the WHO Disability Assessment Schedule (WHODAS 2.0) to address this need, and provide
a standardized way to measure health and disability across cultures.
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4�Measuring Health and Disability: WHODAS 2.0
Box 1.1 summarizes the reasons for learning and using a disability measure.
1.3 What is WHODAS 2.0?
WHODAS 2.0 is a practical, generic assessment instrument that can measure health and disability at
population level or in clinical practice. WHODAS 2.0 captures the level of functioning in six domains of
life (3):
? Domain 1: Cognition – understanding and communicating
? Domain 2: Mobility – moving and getting around
? Domain 3: Self-care – attending to one’s hygiene, dressing, eating and staying alone
? Domain 4: Getting along – interacting with other people
? Domain 5: Life activitie s – domestic responsibilities, leisure, work and school
? Domain 6: Participation – joining in commun ity activities, participating in society.
The six domains – discussed in detail in Chapter 2 – were selected after a careful review of existing re-
search and survey instruments, and a cross-cultural applicability study.
For all six domains, WHODAS 2.0 provides a profile and a summary measure of functioning and disabil-
ity that is reliable and applicable across cultures, in all adult populations.
WHODAS 2.0 provides a common metric of the impact of any health condition in terms of functioning.
Being a generic measure, the instrument does not target a specific disease – it can thus be used to com-
pare disability due to different diseases. WHODAS 2.0 also makes it possible to design and monitor the
impact of health and health-related interventions. The instrument has proven useful for assessing health
and disability levels in the general population and in specific groups (e.g. people with a range of different
mental and physical conditions). Furthermore, WHODAS 2.0 makes it easier to design health and health-
related interventions, and to monitor their impact.
Box 1.1 Why learn and use a disability measure?
Diagnosis and assessment of disability is valuable because it can predict the factors that medical di-
agnosis (assigning a disease label) alone fails to predict; these include:
? service needs – What are the patient’s needs?
? level of care – Should the patient be in primary care, specialty care, rehabilitation or another
setting?
? outcome of the condition – What will the prognosis be?
? length of hospitalization – How long will the patient stay as an inpatient?
? receipt of disability benefits – Will the patient receive any pension?
? work performance – Will the patient ret urn to work and perform as before?
? social integration – Will the patient return to the community and perform as before?
Disability assessment is thus useful for health care and policy decisions, in terms of:
? identifying needs
? matching treatments and interventions
? measuring outcomes and effectiveness
? setting priorities
? allocating resources.
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�Chapter 1 Introduction 5
As explained above, WHODAS 2.0 is grounded in the conceptual framework of the ICF. All domains
were developed from a comprehensive set of ICF items and map directly onto ICF’s “Activity and partic-
ipation” component (2). As in the ICF, WHODAS 2.0 places health and disability on a continuum, with
disability defined as “a decrement in each functioning domain”. In addition, WHODAS 2.0, like the ICF,
is etiologically neutral; that is, it is independent of the background disease or previous health conditions.
This feature makes it possible to focus directly on functioning and disability, and allows the assessment
of functioning separately from the disease conditions.
There are several different versions of WHODAS 2.0, which differ in length and intended mode of ad-
ministration (see Section 2.4 for details). The full version has 36 questions and the short version 12 ques-
tions; these questions relate to functioning difficulties experienced by the respondent in the six domains
of life during the previous 30 days. The different versions – which are given in Part 3 – can be adminis-
tered by a lay interviewer, by the person themselves or by a proxy (i.e. family, friend or carer). The 12-
item version explains 81% of the variance of the more detailed 36-item version. For both versions, gen-
eral population norms are available.
1.4 Why use WHODAS 2.0?
There are numerous published measures of disability; these are also known as health status measures
or functioning measures. Some of the most widely used measures are summarized in Table 1.1, (pp.6,7).
Aspects that make WHODAS 2.0 particularly useful are its sound theoretical underpinnings, good psy-
chometric properties, numerous applications in different groups and settings, and ease of use. This sec-
tion summarizes the main benefits of WHODAS 2.0.
Direct link to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health
A unique feature of WHODAS 2.0, which distinguishes it from other disability measures, is its direct link
to the ICF (2). Although other generic instruments for assessing health status can also be mapped to
ICF, they do not clearly distinguish between measurement of symptoms, disability and subjective ap-
praisal. WHODAS 2.0 is unique in that it covers ICF domains fully and applies to all diseases, including
physical, mental and substance-use disorders. It also assesses disability in a culturally sensitive way
across a standard rating scale. This is discussed in detail in Chapter 2.
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6 Measuring Health and Disability: WHODAS 2.0
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8�Measuring Health and Disability: WHODAS 2.0
Cross-cultural comparability
Unlike other disability measures, WHODAS 2.0 was developed on the basis of an extensive cross-cul-
tural study, spanning 19 countries across the world. The items included in WHODAS 2.0 were selected
only after exploring the nature and practice of health status assessment in different cultures. This was
achieved using a linguistic analysis of health-related terminology, key informant interviews and focus
groups, as well as qualitative methods (e.g. pile sorting and concept mapping
1
) (3). Once developed,
WHODAS 2.0 was tested in a variety of different cultural settings and health populations, and was found
to be sensitive to change, regardless of the sociodemographic profile of the study group.
Psychometric properties
WHODAS 2.0 has excellent psychometric properties. Test–retest studies of the 36-item scale in coun-
tries across the world found it to be highly reliable. All items were selected on the basis of item–response
theory (i.e. the application of mathematical models to data gathered from questionnaires and tests). The
instrument as a whole showed a robust factor structure (see Section 3.2) that remained constant across
cultures and different types of patient populations. The validation studies also showed that WHODAS
2.0 compared well with other measures of disability or health status, and with clinician and proxy ratings
(15,16).
Ease of use and availability
WHODAS 2.0 can be self-administered in around 5 minutes, and administered through an interview in
20 minutes. The instrument is easy to score and interpret, is in the public domain, and is available in
more than 30 languages.
1.5 Purpose and structure of the manual
1.5.1 Purpose
This manual is aimed at health professionals (e.g. in the areas of public health, rehabilitation, physical
therapy and occupational therapy), health-policy planners, social scientists and other individuals in-
volved in studies on disability and health. It will provide users with:
? a new appreciation of health status and disabili ty assessment in the light of the framework and
classification provided by the ICF;
? a detailed overview of the development, key features and application of WHODAS 2.0; and
? a comprehensive guide to administering the various versions of WHODAS 2.0 correctly and
effectively.
1
“Pile sorting” refers to a research technique in which individuals list topics relevant to a particular sub-
ject, then group listed topics into related piles. “Concept mapping” refers to the creation of a concept
map, which is used to explore knowledge or to gather and share information. The map consists of nodes
or cells, each of which contains a concept, item or question. The nodes are linked by arrows that are
labelled to explain how they relate to one another.
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1.5.2 Structure
This manual is organized into three parts, covering background information (Part 1), administration and
scoring of the instrument (Part 2) and the different versions of WHODAS 2.0 (Part 3).
The contents of Chapters 2–4, which make up the remainder of Part 1, are as follows:
? Chapter 2 discusses the development of WHODAS 2.0 – the rationale and conceptual background
for its development, and the method and stages of the development process. This chapter also
introduces the different versions of WHODAS 2.0, and the schedule’s methods, sources and major
findings. It covers the technical basis and implications of incorporating disability into health
assessments, and provides more detail on the links between the ICF and WHODAS 2.0.
? Chapter 3 focuses on the psychometric properties of WHODAS 2.0. It discusses the instrument’s
reliability and consistency, the factor structure, sensitivity to change, item–response characteristics,
validity and general population properties.
? Chapter 4 outlines the uses of WHODAS 2.0 at population and clinical levels. It looks at how the
instrument can be used in population surveys and registers, and for monitoring outcomes for
individual patients in clinical practice and clinical trials of treatment effects.
Part 2 has a practical focus. It contains six chapters:
? Chapter 5 presents generic information and instructions for the different modes of administering
WHODAS 2.0, general guidelines for the application of the instrument and guidance on developing
versions in different languages.
? Chapter 6 covers the scoring of WHODAS 2.0. It includes information on sample characteristics,
computing items, domain and summary scores, population norms and handling of missing data.
? Chapters 7–10 provide question-by-question specifications for all six domains, detailed guidelines for
using the various WHODAS 2.0 versions, material for self-testing and a sample training curriculum.
At the end of Part 2, there is a glossary and a list of references.
As mentioned above, Part 3 of this manual provides the seven different versions of WHODAS 2.0.
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2 WHODAS 2.0 development
This chapter discusses the development of WHODAS 2.0 – the rationale and conceptual background for
its development, and the method and stages of the development process. It also introduces the different
versions of WHODAS 2.0 and the schedule’s methods, sources and major findings. The chapter covers
the technical basis and implications of incorporating disability into health assessments, and expands on
the information given in Chapter 1 about the links between the ICF and WHODAS 2.0.
2.1 Rationale and conceptual background for the development of
WHODAS 2.0
The original Disability Assessment Schedule WHO/DAS – published by WHO in 1988 – was an instru-
ment developed to assess functioning, mainly in psychiatric inpatients (17–20). Since then, the instru-
ment has undergone considerable revision by the WHO Collaborating Centre at Groningen in The
Netherlands, and been published as the “Groningen Social Disabilities Schedule” (GSDS) (21,22).
WHODAS 2.0 is an altogether different instrument that has been developed specifically to reflect the ICF.
WHO developed the ICF as both a health classification and a model of the complete experience of dis-
ability. The disability statistics in the ICF provide measures for assessing the disability burden of all
health conditions, both physical and mental, whatever their cause.
Structurally, the ICF is based on three levels of functioning, with parallel levels of disability, as shown in
Table 2.1.
Table 2.1 Levels of functioning and disability used in the International Classification of Functioning,
Disability and Health (ICF)(2 )
Human functioning is understood as a continuum of health states, and everyone exhibits some degree
of functioning in each domain, at the level of the body, the person and society.
The ICF conceptualizes disability as a health experience that occurs in a context, rather than as a prob-
lem that resides solely in the individual. According to the biopsychosocial model embedded in the ICF,
disability and functioning are outcomes of interactions between health conditions (diseases, disorders
and injuries) and contextual factors. The model recognizes that disability is multidimensional and is the
product of an interaction between attributes of an individual and features of the person’s physical, social
and attitudinal environment. It broadens the perspective of disability and allows for the examination of
medical, individual, social and environmental influences on functioning and disability.
The authors of this manual strongly recommend that users of WHODAS 2.0 read the introduction to the
ICF and the accompanying educational materials, which are available on the WHO web site.
1
WHODAS 2.0 aims to reflect the key features of the ICF. It has been designed to assess the limitations
on activity and restrictions on participation experienced by an individual, irrespective of medical diagno-
sis.
WHODAS 2.0 was developed through collaborations between WHO and the following organizations
from the United States of America – the National Institutes of Health (NIH), the National Institute of Men-
tal Health (NIMH), the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) and the National In-
Level of functioning Parallel level of disability
Body functions and structures Impairments
Activities Activity limitations
Participation Participation restrictions
1
http://www.who.int/classifications/icf
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12�Measuring Health and Disability: WHODAS 2.0
stitute on Drug Abuse (NIDA). The project is referred to as the WHO/NIH Joint Project on Assessment
and Classification of Disability.
2.2 Relation with WHO Quality of Life instrument
WHO has also developed the Quality of Life (WHOQOL
1
) instrument, which assesses subjective well-
being in different areas of life (23). Conceptually, the constructs of quality of life and functioning are often
seen as interchangeable. Although these constructs are indeed interrelated, WHODAS 2.0 measures
functioning (i.e. an objective performance in a given life domain), while WHOQOL measures subjective
well-being (i.e. a feeling of satisfaction about one’s performance in a given life domain). Ideally, the same
life domains should be used in both instruments. Whereas WHODAS 2.0 asks what a person “does” in
a particular domain, WHOQOL asks what the person “feels” in that domain.
2.3 Process of development of WHODAS 2.0
The method used to develop WHODAS 2.0 had several unique features; these were:
? a collaborative international approach, with the aim of developing a single generic instrument for
assessing health status and disability in different settings (discussed in detail below);
? a unique set of cross-cultural applicability study protocols, to ensure that WHODAS 2.0 would have
a high degree of functional and metric equivalence across different cultures and settings; and
? a connection with the revision of the ICF, to allow the new instrument to be directly linked to the ICF.
Collaborative approach
Several culturally diverse centres were involved in operationalizing the instrument’s six domains, writing
and selecting questions, deriving response scales and carrying out pilot testing. Thus, issues such as
standardization, equivalence between settings and translation were at the forefront of the development
process. To ensure that the collaboration was genuinely international, field centres were selected based
on differences in settings, level of industrialization, available health services and other markers relevant
to the measurement of health and disability (e.g. role of the family, perception of time, and perception of
self and dominant religion).
The extensive and rigorous international research involved in developing WHODAS 2.0 included:
? a critical review of the literature on conceptualizat ion and measurement of functioning and disability,
and of related instruments (24,25);
? a systematic cross-cultural applicability study ( 3); and
? a series of empirical field studies to develop and refine the instrument.
These steps are discussed below.
Review of existing instruments
In preparation for the development of WHODAS 2.0, WHO assembled a Task Force on Assessment In-
struments, comprising international experts, to review existing instruments. The task force chose a broad
range of instruments, including various measures of disability, handicap, quality of life and other health
status (e.g. activities of daily living, instrumental activities of daily living, global or specific measures, sub-
jective well-being and quality of life). The 300 or so instruments reviewed reflected considerable diversity
in terms of theoretical framework, terminology, constructs measured, assessment strategy, level of skills
assessed, assessment goals and focus of valuation. Despite this diversity, it was possible to refine a pool
of “items” (i.e. core domains of functioning and disability), and link them to the ICF.
Information about the instruments was compiled into a database showing the common pool of items, and
their origin and known psychometric properties. Over two years, the task force reviewed the data and
the pool of items, using the ICF as the common framework. Undertaking the review enabled the con-
1
http://www.who.int/whoqol
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�Chapter 2 WHODAS 2.0 development 13
struction of WHODAS 2.0 to benefit from the knowledge base of all existing assessment instruments; it
also meant that the new instrument was congruent with the revised ICF.
After careful deliberation and initial pilot tests (see below), the task force grouped the items into the fol-
lowing six domains:
? Domain 1: Cognition – Assesses communication and thinking activities; specific areas assessed
include concentrating, remembering, problem solving, learning and communicating.
? Domain 2: Mobility – Assesses activities such as standing, moving around inside the home, getting
out of the home and walking a long distance.
? Domain 3: Self-care – Assesses hygiene, dressing, eating and staying alone.
? Domain 4: Getting along – Assesses interactions with other people and difficulties that might be
encountered with this life domain due to a health condition; in this context, “other people” includes
those known intimately or well (e.g. spouse or partner, family members or close friends) and those
not known well (e.g. strangers).
? Domain 5: Life activities – Assesses difficulty with day-to-day activities (i.e. those that people do on
most days, including those associated with domestic responsibilities, leisure, work and school).
? Domain 6: Participation – Assesses social dimensions, such as community activities; barriers and
hindrances in the world around the respondent; and problems with other issues, such as
maintaining personal dignity. The questions do not necessarily and solely refer to the ICF
participation component as such, but also include various contextual (personal and environmental)
factors affected by the health condition of the respondent.
Cross-cultural applicability study
To ensure that WHODAS 2.0 is cross-culturally meaningful and valid, a systematic research study was
undertaken. The cross-cultural applicability research (CAR) study used various qualitative methods to
explore the nature and practice of health status assessment in different cultures (3). The study included
linguistic analysis of health-related terminology, key informant interviews, focus groups and quasi-quan-
titative methods such as pile sorting and concept mapping (carried out in tandem). Information was gath-
ered on the conceptualization of disability and on important areas of day-to-day functioning.
The study provided rich insights into the constructs that were likely to be universally applicable, possible
anchors for the domain scales and thresholds for the assessment instrument, and phraseology and di-
mensions that could be used in the assessment instruments. It also highlighted areas that might require
more careful probing and attention in order to construct reliable and valid instruments, as well as issues
related to parity between physical and mental conditions that needed to be addressed. The study led to
the production of a version of WHODAS 2.0 with 96 items grouped into 6 domains, to be used in forma-
tive field studies; the studies were designed to reduce the number of items and increase reliability.
Reliability and validity field studies
The psychometric properties of WHODAS 2.0 were subject to two waves of international testing, using
a multicentre design with identical protocols, as summarized in Box 2.1 and 2.2. Study sites were chosen
for their geographic representation of different WHO regions (taking into account cultural and linguistic
variation) and their suitability for reaching different populations and conducting research. In each phase,
the general study design required equal numbers of subjects at each site to be drawn from four different groups:
? general population;
? populations with physical problems;
? populations with mental or emotional problems; and
? populations with problems related to alcohol and drug use.
Each site recruited subjects 18 years or older, with gender evenly distributed. Each subject was given a
description of the study and informed consent was obtained as set forth by the ethical standards of WHO.
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14�Measuring Health and Disability: WHODAS 2.0
In Domain 5 – life activities – samples included people who were employed, self-employed, retired or not
working. Therefore, all results were grouped into two main categories: work sample (i.e. people who re-
ported gainful employment) and overall sample. WHODAS 2.0 scores for Domain 5 are therefore calcu-
lated separately for the sections that cover the work sample.
Box 2.1 WHODAS 2.0 field studies: Item reduction and feasibility
Study sites
Studies were undertaken at the 21 sites listed below.
Site n Site n
Austria (Innsbruck) 50 Netherlands (The Hague) 47
Cambodia (Phnom Penh) 50 Nigeria (Ibadan) 50
China (Beijing) 50 Peru (Lima) 59
Cuba (Havana) 50 Romania (Timisoara) 50
Greece (Athens) 48 Spain (Santander) 54
India 1 (Bangalore) 283 Tunisia (Tunis) 50
India 2 (Delhi) 154 Turkey (Ankara) 49
Italy (Rome) 20 United Kingdom (London) 35
Japan 50 United States of America 1 (Michigan) 152
Lebanon 37 United States of America 2 (Seattle) 43
Luxembourg (Luxembourg) 50
Characteristics of sample
n %
Origin:
General population 262 18.3
Physical problems 418 29.3
Mental or emotional problems 394 27.6
Alcohol-related problems 195 13.6
Drug-use-related problems 162 11.3
Sex:
Female 651 45.5
Male 780 54.5
Age:
Under 55 years 1078 75.3
55 years and above 353 24.7
Methodological Study 1 on different ways to ascertain duration of disability (total n = 651):
Study sites
Studies were undertaken at the seven sites listed below.
Site n Site n
Cambodia (Phnom Penh) 100 Lebanon (Beirut) 50
Germany (Hamburg) 69 Romania (Timisoara) 101
India (Bangalore) 138 Tunisia (Tunis) 100
India (Delhi) 93
Methodological Study 2 on comparison standard (explicit versus implicit)
(total n = 396):
Studies were undertaken at one site, in India (Bangalore).
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�Chapter 2 WHODAS 2.0 development 15
Wave 1 studies (see Box 2.1) first used the 96-item version of WHODAS 2.0 to obtain empirical feedback.
This feedback could be used to determine which items were redundant, the performance of the short version,
and the applicability of the rating scales and the timeframe. Eight steps were involved in these studies:
1. Complete language translation and back-translation of the instrument and supporting material,
with linguistic analysis of difficulties encountered.
2. Application of the WHODAS 2.0 interview.
3. Collection of additional data on the feasibility of the interview and on diagnosis.
4. Cognitive debriefing protocol and qualitative surveys with subjects, interviewers and other
experts.
5. Focus groups on WHODAS 2.0.
6. Concurrent application of Medical Outcomes Study 12-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-12),
and the 36-item version (SF-36) (7,26), and the London Handicap Scale (LHS) (6).
7. Concurrent application of WHOQOL(23) or the WHOQOL Brief Scale (WHOQOL–BREF) (27).
8. Optional use of ICF checklist (28).
Data analysis of Wave 1 studies focused on reducing the number of items from 96 to a more reasonable
number, and examining the psychometric properties of questions and the factor structures that would
allow the instrument to be shortened but would maintain the six domains.
Box 2.2 WHODAS 2.0 field studies: Reliability and validity
Study sites
Studies were undertaken at the 16 sites listed below.
Site n Site n
Austria (Innsbruck) 100 Luxembourg (Luxembourg) 98
Cambodia (Phnom Penh) 98 Netherlands (The Hague) 50
China (Beijing) 100 Nigeria (Ibadan) 140
Greece (Athens) 96 Romania (Timisoara) 108
India 1 (Bangalore) 100 Russian Federation (Moscow) 105
India 2 (Chennai) 100 Spain (Santander) 99
India 2 (Delhi) 95 Tunisia (Tunis) 123
Italy (Rome) 96 United States of America (multiple) 57
Characteristics of sample
n %
Origin:
General population 366 23.4
Physical problems 405 25.9
Mental or emotional problems 402 25.7
Alcohol-related problems 225 14.4
Drug-use-related problems 167 10.7
Sex:
Female 641 41.0
Male 924 59.0
Age:
Under 55 years 1304 83.3
55 years and above 261 16.7
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16�Measuring Health and Disability: WHODAS 2.0
The following criteria were used to select the final items of WHODAS 2.0:
? cultural acceptance, which was assessed based on the qualitative components of field trials (expert
opinion, cognitive debriefing, interviewer feedback) and on a quantitative analysis of missing values
(e.g. certain items having more than 10% missing values in certain cultures) (29);
? factor loading, which needed to be higher than 0.6 in the domains where the item was placed (4);
? minimal cross-loading of items (i.e. loading in more than one domain);
? high discriminatory power at all levels, a ssessed using models derived from item-response theory
(non-parametric approaches such as Mokken (30) and parametric approaches such as the
Birnbaum model (31)); and
? minimal redundancy (e.g. eliminating of one of two related items, such as “standing for a short
period” and “standing for a long period”).
On the basis of classical test theory and item-response theory analysis, the 96-item version was reduced
to 34 items (4). Two further items were then added, based on input received from interviewers in the field
and from the expert opinion survey – one of the additional items related to limitations in sexual activities
and one to the impact of the health condition on the family.
Wave 2 studies involved testing the revised version’s psychometric properties across different sites and
populations, as summarized in Box 2.2 (4,15). The psychometric properties of the WHODAS 2.0 36-item
version are summarized in Chapter 3.
2.4 Final structure of WHODAS 2.0
Three versions of WHODAS 2.0 were developed – a 36-item, 12-item and 12+24-item version, each of
which is discussed below. All the versions query functioning difficulties in the six selected domains (listed
in Section 2.3, above) during the 30 days preceding the interview.
Depending on the information needed, the study design and the time constraints, the user can choose
between three versions of WHODAS 2.0.
36-item version
Of the three versions, the 36-item version of WHODAS 2.0 is the most detailed. It allows users to gen-
erate scores for the six domains of functioning and to calculate an overall functioning score.
For each item that is positively endorsed, a follow-up question asks about the number of days (in the
past 30 days) on which the respondent has experienced the particular difficulty. The 36-item version is
available in three different forms – interviewer-administered, self-administered and proxy-administered.
The average interview time for the interviewer-administered 36-item version is 20 minutes.
12-item version
The 12-item version of WHODAS 2.0 is useful for brief assessments of overall functioning in surveys or
health-outcome studies in situations where time constraints do not allow for application of the longer ver-
sion. The 12-item version explains 81% of the variance of the 36-item version. As with the 36-item ver-
sion, the 12-item version is available in three different forms – interviewer-administered, self-
administered and proxy-administered.
The average interview time for the interviewer-administered 12-item version is five minutes.
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�Chapter 2 WHODAS 2.0 development 17
12+24-item version
The 12+24-item version of WHODAS 2.0 is a simple hybrid of the 12-item and 36-item versions. It uses
12 items to screen for problematic domains of functioning. Based on positive responses to the initial
12 items, respondents may be given up to 24 additional questions. Thus, this is a simple, adaptive test
that attempts to capture 36 items fully, while avoiding negative responses. The 12+24-item version can
only be administered by interview or computer-adaptive testing (CAT).
For each item that is positively endorsed, a follow-up question asks about the number of days (in the
past 30 days) the respondent has experienced this difficulty. The average interview time for the 12+24-
item version is 20 minutes.
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18�Measuring Health and Disability: WHODAS 2.0
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�19
3 Psychometric properties of WHODAS 2.0
This chapter reports on the psychometric properties of WHODAS 2.0. It discusses the extensive field
tests conducted in countries across the world, which revealed that WHODAS 2.0 has good reliability and
item-response characteristics, and a sturdy factor structure that remains consistent across cultures and
different types of patient populations. This chapter also discusses the validity studies, which showed that
the results obtained with WHODAS 2.0 are consistent with those from other measures of disability or
health status, or with clinician and proxy ratings.
3.1 Test–retest reliability and internal consistency
As explained in Chapter 2, test–retest reliability and internal consistency of WHODAS 2.0 were deter-
mined during the Wave 2 studies. A standard test–retest design was used, with the second application
session occurring within seven days of the first interview (mean interval, 2.4 � 1.6 days) to maximize the
overlap in the timeframes of reference of the two interviews. First and second interviews were completed
by different interviewers.
Results of the reliability analysis are shown in Figure 3.1 as a summary for item, domain and full instru-
ment (overall) levels. Test–retest reliability had an intra-class coefficient of 0.69–0.89 at item level; 0.93–
0.96 at domain level; and 0.98 at overall level.
Figure 3.1 WHODAS 2.0 reliability: test–retest summary
a
D, domain; ICC, intra-class coefficient
a
Wave 2 (n
total
= 1565; n
s
for ICC depend on domain; for example, on how many subjects responded to all items at both time points: D1,
1448; D2, 1529; D3, 1430; D4, 1222; D5(1), 1399; D5(2) – only with remunerated work, 808; D6, 1431.
Internal consistencies at the domain and summary levels, based on responses at first interview (time
1), were examined using item–total correlations and Cronbach’s alphas
1
(which measure how well a set
of variables or items measures a single, unidimensional latent construct). In general, these values
ranged from “acceptable” to “very good”. Ranges for item–total values for the overall sample were as
shown in Table 3.1.
1
Cronbach’s alpha is a measure of of well a set of variables or items measures a single, unidimensional
latent construct.
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20�Measuring Health and Disability: WHODAS 2.0
Table 3.1 Ranges for item–total values for the overall sample
Cronbach’s alpha levels were generally very high, as can be seen in Table 3.2.
Table 3.2 Cronbach’s alpha values for WHODAS 2.0 domain
a
and total scores, f the overall sample and
by subgroup
a
Domains – 1: Cognition; 2: Mobility; 3: Self-care; 4: Getting along; 5(1): Life activities (household); 5(2): Life activities (work);
6: Participation
3.2 Factor structure
Wave 1 factor analysis revealed a two-level hierarchical structure, with one general disability factor feed-
ing into the six domains (see Figure 3.2). Most questions fitted best in their theoretically assigned do-
mains, confirming the unidimensionality of domains; the exception was leisure questions in Domain 5
(life activities), which actually belong in Domain 6.
Domain Range
1 0.59–0.70
2 0.74–0.79
3 0.47–0.73
4 0.52–0.76
5 0.88–0.94
6 0.54–0.74
Domain
123 45(1)5(2) 6Total
score
n 1444 1524 1425 1217 1396 807 1428 578
Overall Cronbach’s alpha
n = 1565
0.94 0.96 0.95 0.94 0.94 0.94 0.95 0.98
Population group
General 0.93 0.96 0.94 0.93 0.91 0.95 0.93 0.97
Drug 0.91 0.94 0.92 0.88 0.92 0.89 0.94 0.98
Alcohol 0.93 0.91 0.87 0.94 0.93 0.90 0.93 0.98
Mental 0.94 0.93 0.92 0.94 0.92 0.94 0.93 0.98
Physical 0.92 0.96 0.96 0.92 0.95 0.94 0.94 0.97
Gender
Female 0.95 0.96 0.95 0.96 0.94 0.96 0.97 0.99
Male 0.92 0.96 0.95 0.91 0.94 0.93 0.94 0.98
Age
< 55 years 0.94 0.96 0.95 0.94 0.94 0.94 0.96 0.98
>55 years 0.90 0.95 0.94 0.93 0.93 0.99 0.95 0.99
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�Chapter 3 Psychometric properties of WHODAS 2.0 21
Variance explained by a first general factor was as follows:
? Domain 1 (cognition) – 47%
? Domain 2 (mobility) – 54%
? Domain 3 (self-care) – 54%
? Domain 4 (getting along) – 62%
? Domain 5 (life activities) – 31%
? Domain 6 (participation) – 51%.
Confirmatory factor analysis showed a rigorous association between the factor structure of the items and
the domains, and between the domains and a general disability factor. These results again support the
unidimensionality of domains. The factor structure was similar across the different study sites and pop-
ulations tested. Wave 2 factor analysis essentially replicated these results.
Figure 3.2 WHODAS 2.0 factor structure
a
a
Wave 1 confirmatory factor analysis (n = 1050 without the work section)
3.3 Cross-cultural sensitivity to change
WHODAS 2.0 responsiveness studies have been conducted in a variety of health populations and treat-
ment settings throughout the world; results are shown in Figure 3.3. All of the studies followed a common
protocol, in which the 36-item, interview version of WHODAS 2.0 was administered on at least two oc-
casions – once on entry to the study and again at follow-up assessment (at least four weeks later). In
each of the studies, another disability measure (e.g. LHS or SF-36 – see Table 1.1 in Chapter 1) was
also administered at both time points, and disorder severity was assessed based on the clinician’s judge-
ment or a standardized measure (e.g. Clinical Global Impression, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale).
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22�Measuring Health and Disability: WHODAS 2.0
Figure 3.3 WHODAS 2.0 percentage reduction at follow-up assessment
Overall, WHODAS 2.0 was found to be at least as sensitive to change as other measures of social func-
tioning, with study-specific effect sizes ranging from 0.46 for outpatient care of the depressed elderly in
the United Kingdom to 1.38 for outpatient care of newly referred schizophrenia cases in China (29).
Figure 3.3 also shows the reduction of WHODAS 2.0 scores in each of the studies. A pooled multilevel
analysis of subjects across the different studies revealed that summary change scores were unaffected
by sociodemographic factors, suggesting that WHODAS 2.0 is applicable across cultures.
3.4 Item-response characteristics
In Wave 2 studies, WHODAS 2.0 items were tested in a dichotomized version – none (rated as “0”) ver-
sus any limitation (rated as “1”, “2”, “3”, “4”) – as well as in their original 5-point Likert-scale version. For
dichotomous items, the Rasch model was fitted to both samples and both versions (i.e. including work
items versus excluding work items). For polytomous items, the assumption of ordinal item steps was as-
sessed by inspecting the conditional transition probabilities between adjacent categories estimated for
a partial credit model (which can be seen as a polytomous extension of a Rasch scale).
The results of the studies indicated that the dichotomous version of WHODAS 2.0 was compatible with
Rasch assumptions, and the polytomous version was compatible with the partial credit model, provided
that a number of items were recoded (see Chapter 6).
3.5 Validity
Face validity
In terms of face validity – that is, the indicators that show that the instrument measures what it is intended
to measure – 64% of the experts agreed that the WHODAS 2.0 content measures disability as defined
by the ICF.
Measurement properties of WHODAS 2.0 that emerged across treatment categories showed meaningful
scores in expected directions. All treatment groups (drug, alcohol, physical and mental) scored signifi-
cantly higher (i.e. had greater disability) than the general population group, indicating that WHODAS 2.0
is sensitive to functional problems across a range of underlying diseases and disorders. Within treatment
groups, the domain profiles were consistent with what might be expected. For example, the physical
group scored significantly worse than all other groups on the domains that emphasize mobility (i.e. mo-
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�Chapter 3 Psychometric properties of WHODAS 2.0 23
bility [Domain 2] and self-care [Domain 3]), whereas the drug group scored significantly worse than other
groups on participation in society (Domain 6). Figure 3.4 shows the domain profiles across subgroups.
Figure 3.4 WHODAS 2.0 domain profile by subgroup
Concurrent validity
In the Wave 2 studies, WHODAS 2.0 was administered simultaneously with other known instruments
such as the LHS, the Medical Outcomes Study’s 36-Item Health Survey (SF-36), SF-12, the Functional
Independence Measure (FIM), WHOQOL-100 and WHOQOL-BREF, in different countries and popula-
tions (15). Table 3.3 summarizes these results, showing correlation coefficients with relevant domains
from the LHS, FIM and SF. As expected, the highest correlations were found with specific domains mea-
suring similar constructs; in particular, between the FIM and WHODAS 2.0 mobility domains. Other cor-
relations were mostly between 0.45 and 0.65, indicating similarity of constructs between WHODAS 2.0
dimensions and recognized tests, but also that WHODAS 2.0 is measuring something distinct.
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24�Measuring Health and Disability: WHODAS 2.0
Table 3.3 Correlation coefficients between WHODAS 2.0 and related instruments
FIM, Functional Independence Measure; LHS, London Handicap Scale; SF-12, Medical Outcomes Study 12-Item Short-Form Health
Survey; SF-36, Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey; WHOQOL, WHO Quality of Life Project.
a
Numbers in parentheses are the minimum and maximum number of subjects the correlations are based on. Since the n for “work” has
been considerably lower, because this set of questions has only been given to people with remunerated work, these results are given
separately.
b
For correlations with WHODAS 2.0 Domains 1 and 4, the SF mental scores were used; for all other domains, the SF physical scores were
used.
c
For Domain 1, the FIM cognition score was used as basis of the correlation; for Domain 2, FIM mobility was used; for all other domains, the
overall FIM score was used.
Construct validity
Construct validity involves explicitly specifying the dimensions of the construct of interest, the area cov-
ered by the dimensions (both uniquely and jointly) and the expected relations of the dimensions to each
other (both internally and externally). Evidence of construct validity can be seen from the extent to which
a new measure correlates with an existing measure of the same construct, and differentiates from a third,
distantly related measure.
Construct validity is the degree to which inferences made from a study can be generalized to the under-
lying concepts (32). In accordance with this definition, WHODAS 2.0 has construct validity. In people
who have certain health conditions (e.g. cataract, hip or knee problems, depression, schizophrenia or
alcohol problems), WHODAS 2.0 can pick up improvements in functioning following treatment. This fea-
ture is also called “sensitivity to change” or “responsiveness of an instrument” (see Section 3.3). In ac-
cordance with the health services research studies conducted within the WHODAS 2.0 field trials (29),
WHODAS 2.0 was sufficiently sensitive to pick up change in the functioning profiles of the treatment
group. This change was statistically significant and comparable to, or better than, other established mea-
sures commonly used in the field for similar purposes. Figure 3.5 illustrates the sensitivity to change of
WHODAS 2.0 in people who receive treatment for depression.
WHODAS 2.0 domain SF-36 (n = 608–658)/
SF-12 (n = 93–94)
a,b
WHOQOL
(n = 257–288)
LHS
(n = 662–839)
FIM
c
(n = 68–82)
1 – Cognition –0.19 / –0.10 –0.50 –0.62 –0.53
2 – Getting around –0.68 / –0.69 –0.50 –0.53 –0.78
3 – Self-care –0.55 / –0.52 –0.48 –0.58 –0.75
4 – Getting along –0.21 / –0.21 –0.54 –0.50 –0.34
5(1) – Life activities
(household)
–0.54 / –0.46 –0.57 –0.64 –0.60
5(2) – Life activities (work) –0.59 / –0.64
(n = 372/42)
–0.63
(n = 166)
–0.52
(n = 498)
–0.52
(n = 23)
6 – Participation –0.55 / –0.43 –0.66 –0.64 –0.62
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�Chapter 3 Psychometric properties of WHODAS 2.0 25
Figure 3.5 WHODAS 2.0 sensitivity to change (responsiveness) in cases receiving depression treatment
(29)
LHS, London Handicap Scale; SF-36, Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey; MCS, mental component summary
Note: Results are reported as effect size (change in mean/SD1), see Glossary
3.6 WHODAS 2.0 in the general population
Following the demonstration of the reliability and concurrent validity of WHODAS 2.0, a study was
launched to test the properties of the instrument in large general population surveys, and to establish the
norms for scoring WHODAS 2.0. This study was carried out in China, Colombia, Egypt, Georgia, India,
Indonesia, Islamic Republic of Iran, Lebanon, Mexico, Nigeria, Singapore, Slovakia, Syria and Turkey,
as a part of the WHO Multi-Country Survey Study on Health and Responsiveness 2000–2001 (MCSS)
(34). The samples were selected using probabilistic methods, and were nationally or regionally repre-
sentative. The survey included 21 items from the WHODAS 2.0 36-item version; it measured self-
reported health status, and included performance tests for cognition, mobility and vision.
The MCSS demonstrated the feasibility of the use of the WHODAS 2.0 in the general population, and
showed that the instrument has the same psychometric properties in different population groups. It also
provided the data for the normative scores against which different study populations can now be com-
pared.
Subsequently, based on the results of the MCSS, the same concepts were also applied in the WHO
World Health Surveys (WHS) that were carried out in 70 countries. The usefulness of these constructs
was once again established (35). Since then, the instrument has also been used in a modified form in
the WHO World Mental Health Surveys, to measure the impact of mental and physical disorders (36,37).
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26�Measuring Health and Disability: WHODAS 2.0
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�27
4 Uses of WHODAS 2.0
This chapter outlines the uses of WHODAS 2.0 at population and clinical levels. For example, it looks at
how the instrument can be used in population surveys and registers, and for monitoring outcomes for
individual patients in clinical practice and clinical trials of treatment effects.
4.1 Applications of WHODAS 2.0
WHODAS 2.0 was conceived as a general health state assessment measure, capable of being used for
multiple purposes and in different settings. Table 4.1 contains summaries of WHODAS 2.0 applications
in surveys of general and specific populations. Further information on WHODAS 2.0 applications is pro-
vided in a user database on the WHODAS 2.0 web site.
1
Table 4.1 Population survey applications of WHODAS 2.0
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Application name Summary of application
Multi-Country Survey
Study on Health and
Responsiveness 2000–
2001 (MCSS) and World
Health Survey (WHS)
Population characteristics: Nationally representative face-to-face household
surveys. MCSS conducted in 10 countries (n = 130 000), WHS conducted in 70
countries (n = 240 000).
WHODAS 2.0 version used: MCSS: 12-item version and selected items from 36-
item version and level of impairment question module; WHS: adapted 12-item
version and impairment question module.
Main findings: Validation of WHODAS 2.0 population norms; domain specific and
overall level of functioning and disability prevalence (34,35).
World Mental Health
Survey (WMHS)
Population characteristics: Nationally representative sample of adult population
(n = 12 992).
WHODAS 2.0 version used: 12-item version.
Main findings: Assessed the factor structure, internal consistency, and
discriminatory validity of the WHODAS 2.0 version used in the European Study of
the Epidemiology of Mental Disorders (38).
Findings from other sub-studies:
? Examined and compared the association of mental and physical disorders with
multiple domains of functioning. WHODAS 2.0 was used to measure functional
status, with the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) used as
the measure for mental disorders (39,40).
? Results show a strong impact of mental health state and specific mental and
physical disorders on work-role disability and quality of life in six European
countries (41).
Global Study on Ageing Population characteristics: Longitudinal survey programme with an emphasis on
populations aged 50+ years, from nationally representative samples in six countries
(China, Ghana, India, Mexico, Russian Federation and South Africa).
WHODAS 2.0 version used: 12-item version.
Main findings: Ongoing.
WHO/United Nations
Economic and Social
Commission for Asia and
the Pacific (UNESACAP)
project on improving
disability statistics
Population characteristics: Prototypical sample of general population in five
countries (Fiji, India, Indonesia, Mongolia and Philippines).
WHODAS 2.0 version used: 36-item version and level of impairment question
module of the WHS.
Main findings: WHODAS 2.0 and WHS questions showed good specificity and
sensitivity, predictive validity, reliability, translatability and cognitive understanding
across cultures. Questions were recommended to be part of a disability questions
module for census and surveys (42).
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28�Measuring Health and Disability: WHODAS 2.0
WHODAS 2.0 has proven useful in a wide range of clinical and service settings. Table 4.2 gives an over-
view of WHODAS 2.0 validation studies and different applications (e.g. measuring the functioning impact
of different health conditions, identification of intervention needs and monitoring change over time).
Ireland’s National
Physical and Sensory
Disability Database
(NPSDD)
Population characteristics: National population currently registered in the
database (n = 5191).
WHODAS 2.0 version used: 12-item version.
Main findings: WHODAS 2.0 is used as part of an indicator set for routine reporting
in Ireland’s National Physical and Sensory Disability Database.
The database provides disability profiles of the registered population across the
WHODAS 2.0 domains (43,44).
Nicaraguan Survey for
People with Disability
Population characteristics: National and subnational representative sample.
WHODAS version used: 36-item version.
Main findings: Disability prevalence was measured using tools based on
WHODAS 2.0. Disability prevalence was higher than previous estimations; other
estimations focused on deficiencies. This study showed the usefulness of the ICF
and WHODAS 2.0 (45).
Perfomance Assessment
National Survey
(Mexico)
Population characteristics: National and subnational representative sample
(n = 39 000 households).
WHODAS version used: 36-item; the survey includes measurements of eight
health domains.
Main findings: Using the WHODAS 2.0 scoring algorithm, prevalence of disability
was estimated for national and subnational levels. The results demonstrated the
usefulness of an ICF-based measurement approach at population level. In addition,
the results were used as inputs to estimate healthy life expectancy at national and
subnational levels (46).
FIrst National Study on
Disability (Chile)
Population characteristics: National and subnational representative sample
(n = 13 350 households).
WHODAS version used: 36-item .
Main findings: Based on WHODAS 2.0, disability prevalence and severity levels
were estimated for national and regional levels. The results were useful in
understanding the nature and scope of disability in Chile, and have been useful for
policy making and resource allocation (47).
Disability certification in
Nicaragua
Population characteristics: Population with disability.
WHODAS version used: 36-item version.
Main findings: Characterization and certification of disability using WHODAS 2.0.
Identification of associated variables and verification of the usefulness of WHODAS
2.0 as an ICF-based tool in the local context (48).
Disability prevalence and
characterization study in
Panama
Population characteristics: National and subnational representative sample
WHODAS version used: 36-item.
Main findings: National and subnational disability prevalence were estimated. A
questionnaire based on WHODAS was applied to the sample. A national atlas of
disability was created with the results of this study (49).
Tsunami Recovery
Impact Assessment and
Monitoring System
(TRIAMS)
Population characteristics: Household surveys in tsunami-affected areas of
Indonesia (n = 10 859 ) and Thailand (n = 1190).
WHODAS 2.0 version used: 12-item version.
Main findings: Population in tsunami-affected areas showed worse level of
functioning than general population norms. WHODAS 2.0 used as a health outcome
indicator in tsunami-affected areas (50).
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�Chapter 4 Uses of WHODAS 2.0 29
Table 4.2 Clinical applications of WHODAS 2.0
Application name Summary of application
Validation of WHODAS
2.0 in Italy
Population characteristics: People with and without disabilities.
WHODAS 2.0 version used: 36-item version.
Main findings: WHODAS 2.0 is a useful instrument for measuring disability and
functioning. It has high reliability and a stable factor structure. Psychometric
evaluation of a representative sample of Italian disabled people should be
undertaken to reach standard scores for each macrocategory of disability (51).
Utility and feasibility of
WHODAS 2.0 in mental
and physical
rehabilitation
Population characteristics: Patients with long-term physical and psychiatric
illnesses in clinical rehabilitation.
WHODAS 2.0 version used: 36-item version.
Main findings: WHODAS 2.0 and WHO Quality of Life Brief Scale (WHOQOL-
BREF) were found to be meaningful and feasible (52).
Validation of WHODAS
2.0 for patients with
inflammatory arthritis
Population characteristics: Patients with early inflammatory arthritis.
WHODAS 2.0 version used: 36-item version.
Main findings: WHODAS 2.0 is a valid and reliable measure of health-related
quality of life in cross-sectional studies. Research is still required to investigate
potential item redundancy and determine its usefulness in longitudinal studies (53).
Validation of WHODAS
2.0 for patients with
stroke
Population characteristics: Stroke patients and their closest others.
WHODAS 2.0 version used: 36-item version.
Main findings: WHODAS 2.0 is a reliable instrument for the assessment of stroke
patients, both as a self-rating and an observer-rating questionnaire (54).
Validation of WHODAS
2.0 for patients with
systemic sclerosis
Population characteristics: Patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc).
WHODAS 2.0 version used: 36-item version.
Main findings: WHODAS 2.0 had good psychometric properties in patients with
SSc and should be considered a valid measure of health-related quality of life in
SSc (55).
Disability levels of
patients with depression
before and after
intervention
Population characteristics: Patients with depression.
WHODAS 2.0 version used: 36-item version.
Main findings: Levels of disability in patients with depression before and after
receiving antidepressant treatment were identified (52).
Disability pattern in older
community residents
Population characteristics: Older community residents in Nigeria.
WHODAS 2.0 version used: 12-item version.
Main findings: Patterns of disability and care were identified (56).
Validation of WHODAS
2.0 in Germany
Population characteristics: Patients with musculoskeletal diseases, internal
diseases, stroke, breast cancer and depressive disorders.
WHODAS 2.0 version used: 36-item version, in German.
Main findings: Results support the usefulness, reliability, validity, dimensionality,
and responsiveness of the instrument for measuring functioning and disability (57).
Health outcomes and
return to work in patients
with multiple injuries
Population characteristics: Prospective cohort study in patients with severe
multiple injuries.
WHODAS 2.0 version used: 36-item version.
Main findings: WHODAS 2.0 disability scores in the studied population showed
substantially worse functioning compared with general population data. Profession,
injury severity, pain, and physical, cognitive and social functioning made
independent contributions to WHODAS 2.0 two years after injury, and explained
69% of the variance of the model (58).
Validation of WHODAS
2.0 in Spain
Population characteristics: Different clinical populations.
WHODAS 2.0 version used: 36-item, 12-item and 12+24-item version, in Spanish.
Main findings: Description of the development of WHODAS 2.0 in Spain and other
Spanish-speaking countries. Contains information and guidance on how to
administer the different WHODAS 2.0 versions (in Spanish) (59).
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30�Measuring Health and Disability: WHODAS 2.0
Validation of WHODAS
2.0 for patients with
anxiety disorders
Population characteristics: Outpatients with anxiety disorders.
WHODAS 2.0 version used: 36-item version.
Main findings: Compared with three other established generic effectiveness
measures, WHODAS 2.0 was at least as sensitive as other generic effectiveness
measures to changes in anxiety symptom, and was particularly sensitive to
changes in social anxiety symptoms (5).
Validation of WHODAS
2.0 for patients with
hearing loss
Population characteristics: Individuals with adult-onset hearing loss.
WHODAS 2.0 version used: 36-item version.
Main findings: WHODAS 2.0 communication, participation, and total scores can
be used to examine the effects of adult-onset hearing loss on functional health
status (33).
Disability levels and
pattern in older Korean
population
Population characteristics: Older Korean population.
WHODAS 2.0 version used: 36-item version.
Main findings: Level of disability, as measured by WHODAS 2.0, was principally
associated with physical health, depression and cognitive function, rather than
sociodemographic factors (60).
Utility and feasibility of
WHODAS 2.0 in patients
with long-term psychotic
disorders
Population characteristics: Patients treated for long-term psychotic disorders.
WHODAS 2.0 version used: 36-item version.
Main findings: WHODAS 2.0 is a useful addition to clinician-rated measures for
measuring the patient’s own experience of disability (61).
Validation of WHODAS
2.0 for patients with
schizophrenia in Turkey
Population characteristics: Patients with schizophrenia.
WHODAS 2.0 version used: 36-item version.
Main findings: Investigated the relation between symptoms and other patient
characteristics and perceived stigmatization in patients with schizophrenia.
Perceived stigmatization was measured by questions from WHODAS 2.0 (62).
Study of qualitative pro-
files of disability using
WHODAS 2.0
Population characteristics: Clinical patients with spinal cord injury, Parkinson
disease, stroke and depression.
WHODAS 2.0 version used: 36-item version.
Main findings: The identified profiles of functional disability are paralleled by
increasing levels of disability (63).
Validation of WHODAS
2.0 for older patients with
schizophrenia .
Population characteristics: Older patients with schizophrenia.
WHODAS 2.0 version used: 36-item version.
Main findings: Strong evidence for reliability and some evidence for validity of
WHODAS 2.0 with these patients (64).
Disability assessment by
general practitioners
(GPs) in France
Population characteristics: Patients of five GPs in France.
WHODAS 2.0 version used: 12-item version.
Main findings: WHODAS 2.0 was found to be a useful instrument for depicting
disability and service use in general practice (65).
Mental Health
assessment by GPs in
New Zealand
Population characteristics: Patients from a random sample of GPs in New
Zealand.
WHODAS 2.0 version used: 36-item version, self-administered.
Main findings: GPs’ assessment of the patients’ psychological health
corresponded with the patients’ self-assessment of functioning (66).
Validation of HIV/AIDS
specific measure
Population characteristics: HIV-infected patients.
WHODAS 2.0 version used: 36-item version.
Main findings: Convergent validity of the Multidimensional Quality of Life
Questionnaire for HIV/AIDS (MQOL-HIV) with WHODAS 2.0 was satisfactory for
most domains (67).
Validation of WHODAS
2.0 for patients with
depression and low back
pain
Population characteristics: Patients with depression and low back pain in primary
care setting.
WHODAS 2.0 version used: 36-item version.
Main findings: WHODAS 2.0 had excellent internal validity and convergent validity
in the primary care setting. The responsiveness to change of WHODAS 2.0 was
comparable to that of SF-36 (68–70).
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�Chapter 4 Uses of WHODAS 2.0 31
4.2 Further development of WHODAS 2.0
Impairment module
In selecting items for inclusion in WHODAS 2.0, impairment items were generally avoided, because they
are largely disease specific. Nevertheless, some impairments are relatively common, and they require
both assessment and special interventions. Many users have asked for the development of an additional
module that covers impairments in body functions and structures.
A future WHODAS 2.0 impairment module could conceivably be derived from a selection of certain ICF
impairment domains for use in general populations, as identified in Annex 9 of ICF (2). From this domain
list, the impairment questions shown in Table 4.3 were developed and used in the MCSS and the World
Health Surveys (34,35).
Utility and feasibility of
WHODAS 2.0 in patients
with ankylosing
spondylitis (AS)
Population characteristics: Patients with AS.
WHODAS 2.0 version used: 36-item version.
Main findings: WHODAS 2.0 is a useful instrument for measuring disability in AS,
because it accurately reflected disease-specific instruments and showed similar
responsiveness scores. A short-term change on WHODAS 2.0 was found to be
associated with a change in physical function (71).
WHODAS utilization in
the National
Rehabilitation Service
(Argentina)
Population characteristics: 1100 patients with disability certified by the National
Rehabilitation Service.
WHODAS version used: 36-item and 12+24-item.
Main findings: WHODAS 2.0 proved to be a useful instrument for measuring
disability in the National Rehabilitation Service (72).
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32�Measuring Health and Disability: WHODAS 2.0
Table 4.3 Impairment questions used in the WHO Multi-Country Survey Study and the World Health
Surveys
a
Underlining indicates emphasis.
b
Italics indicates instructions for interviewer.
1
How much bodily aches or pains did you have?
a
2 How much bodily discomfort did you have?
3 Have you had a problem with a skin defect of face, body, arms or legs?
4 Have you had a problem with your appearance due to missing or deformed or paralyzed arms, legs, feet?
5 How much difficulty did you have in using your hands and fingers, such as picking up small objects or
opening or closing containers?
6 How much difficulty did you have in seeing and recognizing a person you know across the road? (Take
into account eye glasses, if you wear them).
Read the text in brackets if you see respondent wearing glasses.
b
7 How much difficulty did you have in seeing and recognizing an object at arm’s length or in reading? (Take
into account eye glasses, if you wear them).
Read the text in brackets if you see respondent wearing glasses.
8 How much difficulty did you have in hearing someone talking on the other side of the room in a normal
voice? (Take into account hearing aids, if you use them).
Read the text in brackets if you see respondent using hearing aid.
9 How much difficulty did you have in hearing what is said in a conversation with one other person in a quiet
room? (Take into account hearing aids, if you use them).
Read the text in brackets if you see respondent using hearing aid.
10 How much of a problem did you have passing water (urinating) or in controlling urine (incontinence)?
11 How much of a problem did you have with defecating, including constipation?
12 How much difficulty did you have with shortness of breath at rest?
13 How much difficulty did you have with shortness of breath with mild exercise, such as climbing uphill for
20 metres or stairs (such as 12 steps)?
14 How much difficulty did you have with coughing or wheezing for ten minutes or more at a time?
15 How much of the time did you have a problem with sleeping, such as: falling asleep, waking up frequently
during the night or waking up too early in the morning?
16 How much of a problem did you have with feeling sad, low or depressed?
17 How much of a problem did you have with worry or anxiety?
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�Chapter 4 Uses of WHODAS 2.0 33
Environmental factors module
WHODAS 2.0 does not currently assess environmental factors. Assessment of a respondent’s function-
ing includes enquiries about the current environment of the respondent, but coding is based on function-
ing and disability, not on the environment.
A module could be developed that would assess environmental factors and include enquiries into the
impact of the environment on a person’s functioning. This could be achieved, for example, by adding:
? additional probing questions to enquire about environmental factors where any difficulty is reported
in the current WHODAS 2.0
? a new module on the environment as a whole, to assess the environment independently of
WHODAS 2.0 domains.
Only the former approach was tried during the development field studies. It added to the complexity of
the application and time of the interview, but some people found it useful. As a result, the WHO task force
has decided to undertake it as a separate development project in a future version of WHODAS 2.0.
Clinician version
Clinicians do not generally like administering structured questionnaires, because the standardization re-
quirements may alter the natural flow of a clinical encounter. The basic information can be captured in
a more clinician-friendly assessment schedule that allows more flexibility but more in-depth enquiry op-
tions for clinicians. A good example of such an assessment style is the Schedules for Clinical Assess-
ment in Neuropsychiatry (SCAN) (73). SCAN’s basic feature is to define domains and items, while
allowing the clinician to evaluate the presence and severity of those domains and items in the clinician’s
own style of interrogation.
Children and youth version
WHODAS 2.0 has basically been developed for adult populations. In field trials, it has been applied to
young people aged over 12 years in some countries, but given the strict research criteria, at present, we
cannot recommend its use in subjects below the age of 18 years.
In light of the growing importance of child and youth populations worldwide, and with the advent of the
Children and Youth version of the ICF (ICF-CY), the need to assess functioning and disability in children
and youth is becoming more prominent. WHO is therefore exploring the development of a children and
youth version of WHODAS 2.0.
Linkage of WHODAS 2.0 to disability weights
Summary measures of population health combine data on disability with those on premature mortality to
calculate the burden of disease for public health purposes. Given the importance of summary measures,
one important application of WHODAS 2.0 has been to provide information on the extent of disability in
different populations.
Epidemiological data on disability in populations with certain diseases are not available in certain parts
of the world; therefore, producers of summary measures of population health have chosen to use other
methods of estimation. The computation requires a value called “disability weight”, also known as “pref-
erence” or “valuation” in econometrics. Different techniques are used to obtain estimates of this value
from experts, people who have the disease or general populations.
WHODAS 2.0 is not a valuation instrument. The health state instruments can better be called “descrip-
tors” of disability, whereas disability weight is a “valuation” of disability. These two constructs must be
logically linked to arrive at better disability weights, instead of using complex estimation techniques. In
this way, epidemiology of disability can empirically inform disability weights.
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34�Measuring Health and Disability: WHODAS 2.0
A WHO/NIH joint project included a supplement to explore this linkage (74). The research took place
within the MCSS, in which WHODAS 2.0 was applied with other measures of valuation such as “visual
analogue scale” and “time trade off” (34). The results show that, with proper regression techniques,
WHODAS 2.0 could generate disability weights. Since valuation techniques require extensive inter-
views, this method is a good alternative to population surveys.
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Part 2
Practical aspects of administering and scoring
WHODAS 2.0
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36��Measuring Health and Disability: WHODAS 2.0
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37
5 Administering WHODAS 2.0
WHODAS 2.0 has been successfully administered in both population and clinical settings across a range
of different cultures. This chapter presents generic information and instructions for the different modes
of administering WHODAS 2.0, general guidelines for the application of the instrument and guidance on
developing versions in different languages.
5.1 Access and conditions of use for WHODAS 2.0 and its translations
WHO is granting free access and use of WHODAS 2.0, and has therefore placed the instrument in the
public domain. People wishing to use it can do so after completing an online registration form on the
WHODAS 2.0 web site.
1
The information collected through the registration form is helping WHO to im-
prove and share the knowledge base of WHODAS 2.0 applications and keep WHODAS 2.0 users up to
date with the latest information and developments of the instrument.
Users of WHODAS 2.0 have no authority to make substantive changes to the assessment instrument
unless given explicit permission to do so. Section 4.2 outlines the priority areas for future WHODAS 2.0
development. Users interested in contributing or supporting this work should contact WHO directly by e-
mail.
2
Currently, WHODAS 2.0 is available in the following languages: Albanian, Arabic, Bengali, Chinese
(Mandarin), Croatian, Czech, Danish, Dutch, English, Finnish, French, German, Greek, Hindi, Italian,
Japanese, Kannada, Korean, Norwegian, Portuguese, Romanian, Russian, Serbian, Slovenian, Span-
ish, Sinhala, Swedish, Tamil, Thai, Turkish and Yoruba.
WHO welcomes requests for translation of WHODAS 2.0 into other languages. Anyone interested in
submitting such a request should do so by e-mail.
2
5.2 Modes of administering WHODAS 2.0
There are three modes of administering WHODAS 2.0: self-administered, by interview and by proxy,
each of which is discussed below.
5.2.1 Self-administration
A paper-and-pencil version of WHODAS 2.0 can be self-administered. All questions share similar stems,
and the same timeframe and response scale. This gives the instrument a user-friendly, uncluttered and
to-the-point style. Users are encouraged to photocopy the WHODAS 2.0 versions in Part 3 for re-
search purposes.
5.2.2 Interview
WHODAS 2.0 can be administered in person or over the telephone. Again, the style is user friendly and
avoids unnecessary repetitions. General interview techniques are sufficient to administer the interview
in this mode. Chapter 7 contains question-by-question specifications that each interviewer must be
trained in; training assistance is available through WHO. Chapter 10 contains a test that can be used to
assess knowledge related to WHODAS 2.0.
5.2.3 Proxy
Sometimes it may be desirable to obtain a third-party view of functioning from someone other than the
person being interviewed. For example, family members, caretakers or other observers may be asked
to give their views on the domains of functioning formulated in WHODAS 2.0. Testing during field trials
has shown that obtaining the views of a third party is useful.
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38��Measuring Health and Disability: WHODAS 2.0
5.3 Training in the use of WHODAS 2.0
Standardization
WHODAS 2.0 interviews should be conducted in the same way with each participant. Such standardiza-
tion helps to ensure that differences in participants’ responses are not due to differences in the way the
interview is conducted. For example, if an interviewer administers WHODAS 2.0 to certain participants
in a group situation and to others alone, then differences in responses may be due solely to the different
interview formats. The same principle holds for different interviewers. If one interviewer is friendly to par-
ticipants and another is distant, then participants may give different types of responses. Clear training in
standardized procedures helps to prevent these possibilities.
Privacy
Each participant must be given privacy. This ensures a high comfort level, which in turn gives the most
accurate responses. For example, if WHODAS 2.0 is administered in a waiting room, there needs to be
sufficient space between a participant and his or her neighbour to avoid the responses being seen by
the neighbour. When WHODAS 2.0 is administered through an interview, this should be conducted in a
closed room where responses cannot be overheard.
Frames of reference for answering questions
For all WHODAS 2.0 versions, respondents should answer questions with the following frames of refer-
ence in mind:
? frame 1 – degree of difficulty
? frame 2 – due to health conditions
? frame 3 – in the past 30 days
? frame 4 – averaging good and bad days
? frame 5 – as the respondent usually does the activity
? frame 6 – items not experienced in the past 30 days are not rated.
Interviewers should remind respondents about these frames of reference, as needed. The frames of ref-
erence are explained more fully below.
Frame of reference 1 – degree of difficulty
During the interview, respondents are asked questions about the degree of difficulty that they experience
in doing different activities. For WHODAS 2.0, having difficulty with an activity means:
? increased effort
? discomfort or pain
? slowness
? changes in the way the person does the activity.
This manual provides guidelines for standardized administration of WHODAS 2.0. Those administer-
ing the test should read the guidelines and follow them carefully. The key to success and the essence
of standardization is to ensure that all versions of WHODAS 2.0 are administered in the same way
each time they are used.
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Chapter 5 Administering WHODAS 2.0���39
Frame of reference 2 – due to health conditions
Respondents are asked to answer about difficulties due to any health conditions, such as:
? diseases, illnesses or other health problems
? injuries
? mental or emotional problems
? problems with alcohol
? problems with drugs.
Interviewers should feel free to remind respondents to think about difficulty with activities due to health
conditions, rather than to other causes. For example, item D3.1 of WHODAS 2.0 asks “How much diffi-
culty did you have in washing your whole body?” The possible responses are as follows:
If a respondent has difficulty with bathing simply because it is cold, the item would be rated “1” for none.
However, if the respondent is unable to wash due to arthritis, the item would be rated “5” for extreme or
cannot do.
Frame of reference 3 – in the past 30 days
Recall abilities are most accurate for the period of one month. The past 30 days was therefore selected
as the timeframe for WHODAS 2.0.
Frame of reference 4 – averaging good and bad days
Some respondents will experience variability in the degree of difficulty that they experience over 30 days.
In these cases, respondents should be asked to give a rating that averages good and bad days.
Frame of reference 5 – as the respondent usually does the activity
Respondents should rate the difficulty experienced by taking into consideration how they usually do the
activity. If assistive devices or personal assistance are usually available, respondents should keep this
in mind. For example, as mentioned above, item D3.1 asks “How much difficulty did you have in washing
your whole body?”, and possible responses again range from “None” to “Extreme or cannot do”, or “Not
applicable”.
If a respondent with a spinal cord injury has a personal assistant who helps daily with bathing and there-
fore experiences no difficulty with washing his or her whole body because of the help available, the item
would be rated “1” for “None”. Interviewers who wish to evaluate the added value of personal or technical
assistance are advised to ask the question twice (i.e. without and with personal or technical assistance).
In the example of the respondent with a spinal cord injury, the item would be rated “1” (for “None”) with
help, but “5” (for “Extreme or cannot do”) without help.
Frame of reference 6 – Items rated as not applicable
WHODAS 2.0 seeks to determine the amount of difficulty encountered in activities that a person actually
does, as opposed to activities that the person would like to do or can do, but does not actually do. Inter-
viewers should determine whether responses are applicable. For example, item D2.5 asks “How much
difficulty did you have in walking a long distance, such as one kilometre?”, and possible responses again
range from “None” to “Extreme or cannot do”, or “Not applicable”.
None Mild Moderate Severe Extreme or
cannot do
12345
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40��Measuring Health and Disability: WHODAS 2.0
If a respondent cannot walk one kilometre because he or she has a leg fracture, the item would be rated
“5” for extreme or cannot do. However, if a respondent has not tried to walk one kilometre simply be-
cause he or she drives everywhere, then the item would be coded “N/A” for not applicable.
Another example is item D3.4, which asks “How much difficulty did you have in staying by yourself for a
few days?”, and possible responses again range from “None” to “Extreme or cannot do”, or “Not appli-
cable”. If a respondent lives with her family and has not been alone for a few days in the past 30 days,
the item would be coded “N/A” for “Not applicable”.
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41
6 Scoring of WHODAS 2.0
This chapter explains the scoring of WHODAS 2.0 short (12-item) and full (36-item) versions. The scor-
ing of the full version of WHODAS 2.0 takes into account the paid-work status of the respondent, with
32 items being used if the respondent is not in gainful employment. The chapter also provides general
population norms, to allow comparison of different individuals or groups against population standards
derived from large international samples.
6.1 WHODAS 2.0 summary scores
There are two basic options for computing the summary scores for the WHODAS 2.0 short and full ver-
sions – simple and complex.
Simple scoring
In “simple scoring”, the scores assigned to each of the items – “none” (1), “mild” (2) “moderate” (3), “se-
vere” (4) and “extreme” (5) – are summed. This method is referred to as simple scoring because the
scores from each of the items are simply added up without recoding or collapsing of response cate-
gories; thus, there is no weighting of individual items. This approach is practical to use as a hand-scoring
approach, and may be the method of choice in busy clinical settings or in paper–pencil interview situa-
tions. Simple scoring of WHODAS is specific to the sample at hand and should not be assumed to be
comparable across populations.
The psychometric properties of WHODAS 2.0 allow this additive calculation. In classical psychometric
analysis (75), the WHODAS 2.0 structure has been shown to be unidimensional and to have high internal
consistency (76). As a result, the simple sum of the scores of the items across all domains constitutes a
statistic that is sufficient to describe the degree of functional limitations.
Complex scoring
The more complex method of scoring is called “item-response-theory” (IRT) based scoring; it takes into
account multiple levels of difficulty for each WHODAS 2.0 item. This type of scoring for WHODAS 2.0
allows for more fine-grained analyses that make use of the full information of the response categories
for comparative analysis across populations or subpopulations. It takes the coding for each item re-
sponse as “none”, “mild”, “moderate”, “severe” and “extreme” separately, and then uses a computer to
determine the summary score by differentially weighting the items and the levels of severity. Basically,
the scoring has three steps:
? Step 1 – Summing of recoded item scores within each domain.
? Step 2 – Summing of all six domain scores.
? Step 3 – Converting the summary score into a metric ranging from 0 to 100 (where 0 = no disability;
100 = full disability).
The computer programme is available from the WHO web site;
1
it is also provided in Chapter 8 as SPSS
syntax. This syntax can easily be transformed for other statistics packages. Any questions should be
sent to WHO by e-mail.
2
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42��Measuring Health and Disability: WHODAS 2.0
6.2 WHODAS 2.0 domain scores
WHODAS 2.0 produces domain-specific scores for six different functioning domains –cognition, mobility,
self-care, getting along, life activities (household and work) and participation. The items within these do-
mains are presented in detail in Chapter 7. Users who would like to obtain WHODAS 2.0 domain scores
need to use the full version (i.e. 36 items). The domain scores provide more detailed information than
the summary score. They may be useful for comparing individuals or groups against one another or
against population standards, and across time (e.g. before and after interventions or other comparisons).
All WHODAS 2.0 domain scores are calculated using either the simple or the IRT-based scoring method
(16). However, in order to compare populations, the latter approach is more useful.
6.3 WHODAS 2.0 population norms
WHODAS 2.0 population norms were initially generated from two studies:
? A reliability and validity study (Wave 2, described in Section 2.3).
? The MCSS ( 34). This study was conducted in general population samples from 10 countries (China,
Colombia, Egypt, Georgia, India, Indonesia, Mexico, Nigeria, Slovakia and Turkey). A subset of
these data was used to derive the general population norms for WHODAS 2.0.
Together, these data sources yielded initial population norms for WHODAS 2.0. When new data are
available, these norms will be updated periodically by WHO and published on the WHO web site.
Table 6.1 gives the population norms for IRT-based scoring of the WHODAS 2.0 full versions.
Figure 6.1 displays the similar information in graphic format. The figure shows that an individual with 22
positive item responses (x-axis: WHODAS 2.0 IRT based score) would correspond to the 80
th
percentile
(y-axis: population percentile).
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Chapter 6 Scoring of WHODAS 2.0���43
Table 6.1 Population norms for IRT-based scoring of the WHODAS 2.0 full version
Figure 6.1 Population distribution of IRT-based scores for WHODAS 2.0 – 36-item version
Source: WHO Mutli-Country Survey Study on Health and Responsiveness 2000–2001(34)
Summary score Population percentile
0 40.00
1 46.83
2 52.08
3 56.20
4 59.58
5 62.46
6 64.94
7 67.12
8 69.05
9 70.78
10 72.35
15 78.42
20 82.66
25 85.85
30 88.35
35 90.38
50 94.69
70 98.14
90 99.90
100 100.00
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44��Measuring Health and Disability: WHODAS 2.0
Table 6.2 shows the summary scores and population percentile for IRT-based scoring of the WHODAS
2.0 short version. Figure 6.2 summarizes the table graphically. The figure shows that an individual with
a score of 17 (x-axis: WHODAS 2.0 IRT-based score) would correspond to the 90
th
percentile (y-axis:
population percentile).
Table 6.2 Population norms for polytomous scoring of the WHODAS 2.0 short version
Figure 6.2 Population distribution of IRT-based score for WHODAS 2.0 – 12-item version
Source: WHO Mutli-Country Survey Study on Health and Responsiveness 2000–2001(34)
Summary score Population percentile
0.0 50.0
2.8 63.2
5.6 73.3
8.3 78.1
11.1 82.0
13.9 86.5
16.7 89.6
19.4 92.4
22.2 93.0
25.0 93.8
27.8 94.7
30.6 94.9
41.7 97.2
58.3 99.7
100.0 100.0
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Chapter 6 Scoring of WHODAS 2.0���45
Population norms can be used in several ways. They provide values that can be used to compare differ-
ent groups with each other, such as those with a diagnosis of physical problems to those with mental
health problems. For example, to compare the degree of disability after a myocardial infarction with that
due to severe depression, we recommend using the respective general population norms (i.e. percen-
tiles) in the analysis.
6.4 WHODAS 2.0 item scores
In some instances, users may wish to compare items individually or by grouping some selected items of
their choice. The WHODAS 2.0 raw item scores can be used as an ordinal scale that reflects the level
of difficulty the respondent experiences in performing the particular function. The level of difficulty starts
from “no difficulty” and increases in an ordered fashion to “mild”, “moderate”, “severe” or “extreme” diffi-
culty. Each level indicates a higher degree of difficulty.
Like the overall summary score, the WHODAS 2.0 item scores could be used in two ways:
? dichotomous (yes/no) scale – indicating that the respondent has a difficulty in a particular domain of
functioning, with the response scale for “mild”, “moderate”, “severe” and “extreme” all merged into a
single positive coding; and
? polytomous (multiple-level) scale – which keeps the level of severity as it is; that is, as “mild”,
“moderate”, “severe” or “extreme”.
For item-level comparisons at individual level, the level of detail will require multiple level scoring. For
larger groups, the dichotomous scoring may be used.
Item scores may be used in instances where frequencies of any difficulty for a given domain is to be re-
ported.
6.5 Handling missing data within WHODAS 2.0
There are simple and complex ways of handling missing data in WHODAS 2.0; these are described be-
low.
Simple approaches to missing data
We found that the following methods worked in experimental conditions, in large data sets, where it was
possible to create artificial situations for missing data and recalculate the WHODAS 2.0 scales.
? For WHODAS 2.0 short version – The simplest approach, when only one item is missing a value, is
to use the mean of the other items to assign a score to the missing item in the 12-item WHODAS
2.0. This method should not be used if more than one item is missing.
? For WHODAS 2.0 full version – The following approach is used where more than one item is
missing:
- If the respondent is not working and has given responses to the 32-item WHODAS 2.0, the score
can be used as it is, and will be comparable to that of the full 36-item version.
- In all other situations where one or two items are missing, the mean score across all items within
the domain should be assigned to the missing items. This method should not be used if more
than two items are missing. In addition, if domain-wise scores are being computed for domains,
the two missing items should not come from the same domain.
Complex approaches to missing data
More complex approaches can be used by researchers working with large data sets where many other
background variables are available. These methods need to be used also when either more than one or
more than two items are missing in the 12-item and 36-item versions, respectively.
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46��Measuring Health and Disability: WHODAS 2.0
The first alternative is to use a “hot deck” imputation procedure. This procedure fills in missing item re-
sponses using observed values from similar (i.e. with common characteristics, such as age and sex)
matched, randomly selected respondents with complete data from the same data set. The advantage of
this procedure is that it preserves the distribution of the item values (77). Several alternative algorithms
to implement this imputation procedure are available.
The second alternative is to use a multiple imputation procedure. Unlike “hot deck” imputation, which fills
in a single value for each missing value, the multiple imputation procedure replaces each missing value
with a set of plausible values that represent the uncertainty about the correct value to impute. These mul-
tiply imputed data sets – usually between 3 and 10 – are then analysed using standard procedures for
complete data and the results combined from these analyses (78).
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47
7 Question-by-question specifications
This chapter provides background information about what is intended by each question in WHODAS 2.0.
Interviewers should use this information when respondents request clarification about specific questions
and should not offer their own interpretations.
Each section from WHODAS 2.0 is listed alphabetically, based on the letter that precedes the question
number. In this chapter, questions are shown in bold text, notes on what to record or why are given in
plain text.
7.1 Questions A1–A5: Demographic and background information
This section should be completed with reference to the person completing the interview. A proxy should
answer these questions with regard to the respondent.
A1 Record sex as observed
A2 How old are you now?
Record age
A3 How many years in all did you spend studying in school, college or university?
If the respondent dropped out of school or university, do not give credit for a partial year. If
an individual has been in school both full- and part-time, note the number of years in full-
time education. Count any repeated grades as two years.
A4 What is your current marital status?
Allow the respondent to answer this question without reading the choices in advance. If
the response does not correspond exactly with one of the provided responses, clarify by
reading the choices that could correspond with the response.
Select the option that best reflects current marital status. For example, if the respondent is
currently married but was divorced in the past, score only currently married.
A5 Which describes your main work status best?
Select the option that best reflects the respondent’s current main work status. If doubtful
about how to code a respondent (e.g. as homemaker or unemployed), rely on the
respondent’s judgement of their work status.
There is no minimum number of hours per week that a respondent must work to qualify for
the paid work category. Similarly, students need not be full time in order to be classed as
such. In some versions, this item is used to determine whether respondents will be asked
the series of work questions found in Domain 5. Therefore, if unsure about the response
to this item, default to a category that will qualify the person to answer the questions about
work in Domain 5.
If the respondent reports being unemployed, ask: “is this for health reasons or for other
reasons”, and score accordingly.
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48��Measuring Health and Disability: WHODAS 2.0
7.2 Questions D1.1–D1.6: The six domains
Domain 1: Cognition
Domain 1 of WHODAS 2.0 asks questions about communication and thinking activities. Specific areas
that are assessed include concentrating, remembering, problem solving, learning and communicating.
In the past 30 days, how much difficulty did you have in:
D1.1 Concentrating on doing something for ten minutes?
This question is intended to determine the respondent’s rating of difficulty with concentration for
a short period, defined here as 10 minutes. Generally, respondents understand this item.
However, if clarification is requested, encourage the respondent to think about their
concentration in usual circumstances, rather than when they are preoccupied by a problem or
are in an unusually distracting environment. If necessary, prompt the respondent to think about
their concentration while they were doing something such as work tasks, reading, writing,
drawing, playing a musical instrument, assembling a piece of equipment, and so on.
D1.2 Remembering to do important things?
This is a question about remembering matters of day-to-day importance. It does not refer to
remembering irrelevant content or detailed information from the past. Ask respondents how well
they remember to do things that are important to them or to their family. If a respondent normally
uses some form of memory aid – for example, note-taking, electronic reminder systems or verbal
cueing from personal assistants – then rate their performance with this aid taken into
consideration.
D1.3 Analysing and finding solutions to problems in day-to-day life?
This item refers to a complex activity involving many mental functions. If respondents are unsure
of what the item means, ask them to think about a problem they encountered in the past 30
days. Once a problem is identified, respondents should be asked to consider how well they:
? identified that a problem existed
? broke it down into manageable parts
? developed a list of possible solutions
? determined the pros and cons of each solution
? determined the best solution given all considerations
? executed and evaluated the chosen solution
? selected an alternate solution if the first choice was not successful.
D1.4 Learning a new task, for example, learning how to get to a new place?
In this question, learning a new route is offered as an example. If respondents ask for
clarification or appear to be thinking only about learning how to get to a new place, encourage
them to think of other situations in the past month where learning something new was required,
such as:
? a task at work (e.g. a new procedure or assignment)
? school (e.g. a new lesson)
? home (e.g. learning a new home-repair task)
? leisure (e.g. learning a new game or craft).
Ask respondents, when rating themselves, to consider how easily they acquired new
information, how much assistance or repetition they needed in order to learn and how well they
retained what they learned.
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Chapter 7 Question-by-question specifications���49
Domain 2: Mobility
Activities discussed in Domain 2 of WHODAS 2.0 include standing, moving around inside the home, get-
ting out of the home and walking a long distance.
a
Square brackets [ ] contain instructions to translators
D1.5 Generally understanding what people say?
Ask respondents to consider their usual mode of communication (e.g. spoken language, sign
language, use of an assistive device such as a hearing aid, etc.) and rate the overall degree of
difficulty they have in understanding the messages of others.
Respondents should consider all situations they have encountered in the past 30 days, such as:
? when others spoke quickly
? when there was background noise
? when there were distractions.
Difficulties due to different mother tongues should be excluded when rating this question.
D1.6 Starting and maintaining a conversation?
Rate both starting and maintaining a conversation. If respondents state that they have more
trouble starting than maintaining a conversation (or vice versa), ask them to average the amount
of difficulty experienced with both activities to determine the final difficulty rating.
Conversation includes use of whatever is the usual mode of communication (spoken, written,
sign language, gestural). If respondents normally use assistive devices for communication,
ensure that the difficulty rating provided takes into account conversation while using those
devices.
Ask respondents to consider any and all other factors related to a health condition and relevant
to them in starting and maintaining a conversation. Examples might include hearing loss,
language problems (e.g. as after a stroke), stuttering and anxiety.
In the past 30 days, how much difficulty did you have in:
D2.1 Standing for long periods such as 30 minutes?
D2.2 Standing up from sitting down?
This question refers to standing up from sitting in a chair, on a bench or a toilet. It does not refer
to standing up from sitting on the floor.
D2.3 Moving around inside your home?
This item refers to moving from room to room, and moving within rooms, using assistive devices
or personal help that is usually in place. If a respondent lives in a house with multiple floors, this
question also includes getting from one floor to another, as needed.
D2.4 Getting out of your home?
This question seeks information about:
? physical (mobility) aspects of getting out of the home
? emotional or mental aspects of leaving the home (e.g. depression, anxiety, etc.)
For this question, “home” means the respondent’s current dwelling, which might be a house,
apartment, or nursing home.
D2.5
Walking a long distance such as a kilometre [or equivalent]?
a
Convert distances into imperial measure where necessary (e.g. older people may be more
familiar with miles than with kilometres).
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50��Measuring Health and Disability: WHODAS 2.0
Domain 3: Self-care
Domain 3 asks about bathing, dressing, eating and staying alone.
In the past 30 days, how much difficulty did you have in:
D3.1 Washing your whole body?
This question refers to respondents washing their entire body in whatever manner is usual for
their culture.
If respondents report that they have not washed their bodies in the past 30 days, ask whether
this is due to a health condition (as defined by WHODAS 2.0). If respondents report that it is due
to a health condition, then code the item “5” for “Extreme or cannot do”. If respondents report
that the lack of washing is not due to a health condition, then code the item “N/A” for “Not
applicable”.
D3.2 Getting dressed?
This question includes all aspects of dressing the upper and lower body. Ask respondents to
consider activities such as gathering clothing from storage areas (i.e. closet, dressers) and
securing buttons, tying knots, etc., when making the rating.
D3.3 Eating?
This item refers to:
? feeding oneself: that is, cutting food, and getting food or drink from a plate or glass to the
mouth
? swallowing both food and drink
? mental or emotional fact ors that may contribute to difficulty in eating, such as anorexia,
bulimia, or depression.
This item does not refer to meal preparation.
If a respondent uses non-oral feeding (e.g. tube feedings), this question refers to any difficulties
experienced in self-administering the non-oral feeding; for example, setting up and cleaning a
feeding pump.
D3.4 Staying by yourself for a few days?
The intent of this question is to determine any difficulty respondents have in staying alone for an
extended period and remaining safe. If respondents did not experience this situation in the past
30 days, “N/A” is the correct rating.
If respondents give a rating of “None” for this question, probe the response to determine whether
respondents stayed by themselves without difficulty (in which case “1” is correct) or whether they
did not stay by themselves at all (in which case “N/A” is correct).
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Chapter 7 Question-by-question specifications���51
Domain 4: Getting along
Domain 4 assesses getting along with other people, and difficulties that might be encountered with this
due to a health condition. In this context, “people” may be those with whom the respondent is intimate
or knows well (e.g. spouse or partner, family members or close friends), or those whom the respondent
does not know at all (e.g. strangers).
In the past 30 days, how much difficulty did you have in:
D4.1 Dealing with people you do not know?
This item refers to interactions with strangers in any situation, such as:
? shop-keepers
? service personnel
? people from whom one is asking directions.
When making the rating, ask respondents to consider both approaching such individuals, and
interacting successfully with them to obtain a desired outcome.
D4.2 Maintaining a friendship?
This item includes:
? staying in touch
? interacting with friends in customary ways
? initiating activities with friends
? participating in activities when invited.
Respondents will sometimes report that they have not engaged in friendship-maintenance
activities in the past 30 days. In this case, ask whether this situation is due to a health condition
(as defined by WHODAS 2.0). If respondents report that it is due to a health condition, then code
the item “5” for “Extreme or cannot do”. If respondents report that it is not due to a health
condition, then code the item “N/A”.
D4.3 Getting along with people who are close to you?
Ask respondents to consider any relationships that they define as close. These may be within or
outside the family.
D4.4 Making new friends?
This item includes:
? seeking opportunities to meet new people
? following up on invitations to get together
? social and communication actions to make contact and to develop a friendship.
On occasion, participants will report that they have not engaged in friendship-making activities in
the past 30 days. In this case, interviewers should ask whether this is due to a health condition
(as defined by the WHODAS 2.0). If respondents report that it is due to a health condition, then
code the item “5” for “Extreme or cannot do”. If respondents report that it is not due to a health
condition, then code the item “N/A”.
D4.5 Sexual activities?
Ask respondents to think about what they consider to be sexual activities when answering this
question. If asked for clarification, explain that this question refers to:
? sexual intercourse
? hugging
kissing
? fondling
? other intimate or sexual acts.
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52��Measuring Health and Disability: WHODAS 2.0
Domain 5: Life activities
This domain includes questions about difficulty in day-to-day activities. These activities are those that
people do on most days; they include household, work and school activities. Ensure that flashcards #1
and #2 are visible.
Question-by-question specifications numbers in bold refer to the self-administered versions, and those
in brackets refer to the interviewer-administered versions.
Because of your health condition, in the past 30 days, how much difficulty did you have in:
D5.1 Taking care of your household responsibilities?
This global question is intended to elicit respondents’ appraisal of any difficulty they encounter in
maintaining the household and in caring for family members or other people they are close to.
Ask respondents to consider all types of household or family needs, including:
? physical needs
? emotional needs
? financial needs
? psychological needs.
In some cultures, males may indicate that they do not have household responsibilities. In this
situation, clarify that household responsibilities include:
? managing finances
? car and home repairs
? caring for the outside area of the home
? picking up children from school
? helping with homework
? disciplining children.
Add any other examples that elucidate household responsibilities held by males in the culture,
as necessary.
Here, “household” is defined broadly. In the case of participants who do not have a stable
dwelling place, there are still activities surrounding the upkeep and maintenance of their
belongings. This question refers to those activities.
D5.2 Doing most important household tasks well?
D5.3 Getting all the household work done that you needed to do?
Ask respondents to provide ratings based on their own appraisal of how well household tasks
are completed and whether needed household work gets done. If necessary, remind
respondents that they are to report only difficulties due to the health condition, not those that
may be experienced for other reasons such as not having enough time (unless this reason is
somehow linked to a health condition).
D5.4 Getting your household work done as quickly as needed?
This question refers to the timely meeting of expectations and needs of those respondents
whom one lives with (or is close to), in relation to household tasks and responsibilities.
D5.5 Your day-to-day work/school?
This global question is intended to elicit respondents’ appraisal of difficulties encountered in day-
to-day work or school activities. This includes issues such as attending on time, responding to
supervision, supervising others, planning and organizing, meeting expectations in the workplace
and any other relevant activities.
D5.6 Doing your most important work/school tasks well?
Doing work or school tasks “well” refers to completing them as expected by a supervisor or
teacher, by respondents’ own standards or as specified in the performance criteria for a job or
school.
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Chapter 7 Question-by-question specifications���53
Domain 6: Participation
Domain 6 represents a shift from the line of questioning used in the first five domains. In this domain,
respondents are asked to consider how other people and the world around them make it difficult for them
to take part in society. Here, they are reporting not on their activity limitations but rather on the restric-
tions they experience from people, laws and other features of the world in which they find themselves.
The underlined phrases in the introduction must be emphasized to help respondents shift their mindset
and understand what is being asked. Respondents need to understand that the focus of these questions
is on problems encountered because of the society in which they live rather than because of their own
difficulties. This domain also includes questions about the impact of the health condition.
The introduction to this domain specifically reminds respondents that the focus of this interview is on the
past 30 days. However, this particular domain does not readily lend itself to such a limited time frame;
therefore, it is important to ask respondents to attempt to remain focused on the 30-day reference period.
D5.7 Getting all the work done that you need to do?
D5.8 Getting your work done as quickly as needed?
These questions refer to meeting work quantity expectations and time deadlines.
In the past 30 days:
D6.1 How much of a problem did you have joining in community activities (for example, festivities,
religious or other activities) in the same way anyone else can?
If necessary, clarify this question using other examples of community activities, such as
attending town meetings, fairs, leisure or sporting activities in the town, neighbourhood or
community. The relevant issue being asked in this question is whether respondents can
participate in these activities or whether there are inhibitors to them doing so.
If respondents appear confused by the phrase “in the same way anyone else can”, ask them to
use their judgement to:
? assess the extent to which average people in their community can join community activities;
and
? consider their personal level of difficulty in joining community activities in relation to the
assessment.
D6.2 How much of a problem did you have because of barriers or hindrances in the world around
you?
The intent of this question is to determine how much has stood in the way of respondents being
able to realize aspirations and plans as other people can. The concept here is what
respondents face in terms of external interference created by the world or other people. Barriers
could be:
? physical – for example, the lack of ramps to get into church; and
? social – for example, laws that discriminate against people with disabilities and negative
attitudes of other people that create barriers.
D6.3 How much of a problem did you have living with dignity because of the attitudes and actions of
others?
Ask respondents to consider problems they have had in living with dignity or pride in who they
are, what they are doing and how they live their lives.
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54��Measuring Health and Disability: WHODAS 2.0
D6.4 How much time did you spend on your health condition, or its consequences?
This question seeks to capture an overall rating or snapshot of the portion of the past 30 days
spent by respondents in dealing with any aspect of their health condition. This may include time
spent in activities such as:
? visiting a treatment centre;
? managing financial matters related to their health condition, such as payment of bills,
reimbursement of insurance or benefits; and
? obtaining information about the health condition or in educating others about it.
D6.5 How much have you been emotionally affected by your health condition?
This question refers to the degree to which respondents have felt an emotional impact due to
their health condition. Emotions may include anger, sorrow, regret, thankfulness, appreciation, or
any other positive or negative emotions.
D6.6 How much has your health been a drain on the financial resources of you or your family?
Family is broadly defined to include relatives; however, it also includes those to whom
respondents are not related but consider to be like family, including those who may be sharing in
the financial aspects of the health condition. The focus of this question is on the depletion of
personal savings or current income to meet the needs created by a health condition. If
respondents have experienced a significant financial drain but their family has not, or vice versa,
they should respond to the question based on the drain experienced by either party.
D6.7 How much of a problem did your family have because of your health problems?
The focus here is on problems created by the interaction of a respondent’s health condition with
the world in which the person lives. The question seeks information on problems that are borne
by the family; these might include financial, emotional, physical problems, etc. The term “family”
is defined above in D6.6.
D6.8 How much of a problem did you have in doing things by yourself for relaxation or pleasure?
Ask respondents to consider leisure interests that they currently pursue and those they would
like to pursue but cannot due to the health condition and restrictions imposed by society.
Examples might include a respondent who:
? would like to read novels but is restricted from doing so because the local library does not
carry large-print books; and
? enjoys watching movies but cannot do so because few are produced with subtitles for the
deaf.
Provide an overall rating of problems encountered.
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Chapter 7 Question-by-question specifications���55
7.3 Questions F1–F5: Face sheet
Questions F1–F7 are intended to gather demographic information about each respondent, and should
be completed by the interviewer before the start of an interview.
7.4 Questions H1–H3: Effect of difficulties
Questions H1–H3 assess the extent to which the various difficulties respondents have encountered have
affected their lives.
F1 Record respondent or subject identification number.
F2 Record interviewer identification number.
F3 Record the assessment time point (time 1, time 2, etc.).
F4 Record the interview date in the format day/month/year, filling in blanks with zeros. For example,
May 1
st
2009 would be recorded as 01/05/09, not as 05/01/09.
F5 Indicate the respondent’s living situation at the time of the interview.
? 1 = Independent in community (i.e. living alone, with family, or friends in the community).
? 2 = Assisted living (i.e. living in the community but receiving regular, professional assistance
with at least some daily activities, such as shopping, bathing and meal preparation).
? 3 = Hospitalized (i.e. residing in a 24-hour supervised setting such as a nursing home,
hospital or rehabilitation facility).
H1 Overall, in the past 30 days, how many days were these difficulties present?
This is a global rating concerning all the difficulties assessed in the interview.
H2 In the past 30 days, for how many days were you totally unable to carry out your usual activities
or work because of any health condition?
Encourage respondents to use their own definitions of “totally unable” in answering this question.
H3 In the past 30 days, not counting the days that you were totally unable, for how many days did
you cut back or reduce your usual activities or work because of any health condition?
Ask respondents to consider any sort of reduction in usual activities, rather than counting only
the days that they were totally unable to carry out activities.
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56��Measuring Health and Disability: WHODAS 2.0
7.5 Questions S1–S12: Short-form questions
Questions beginning with the letter “S” appear only in the 12-item and 12+24-item interviewer versions
of WHODAS 2.0.
? In the 12-item version, all S items (S1–S12) are always asked.
? In the 12+24-item version, S1–S5 are always asked, but S6–S12 are asked only if the person has
indicated some difficulty on the first five items.
In the past 30 days, how much difficulty did you have in:
S1 Standing for long periods such as 30 minutes?
S2 Taking care of your household responsibilities?
This global question is intended to elicit respondents’ appraisal of any difficulty they encounter in
maintaining the household and in caring for family members or other people they are close to.
Ask respondents to consider all types of needs of the household or family, including needs that
are:
? physical
? emotional
? financial
? psychological.
In some cultures, males may indicate that they do not have household responsibilities. In this
situation, clarify that household responsibilities include:
? managing finances
? car and home repairs
? tending to the outside area of the home
? picking up children from school
? helping with homework
? disciplining children.
Add any other examples that elucidate household responsibilities held by males in the culture, as
necessary.
Here, “household” is defined broadly. In the case of participants who do not have a stable
dwelling place, there are still activities surrounding the upkeep and maintenance of their
belongings. This question refers to those activities.
S3 Learning a new task, for example, learning how to get to a new place?
In this question, learning a new route is offered as an example. If respondents ask for
clarification or appear to be thinking only about learning how to get to a new place, encourage
them to think of other situations in the past month where learning something new was required,
such as:
? a task at work (e.g. a new procedure or assignment)
? school (e.g. a new lesson)
? home (e.g. learning a new home repair task)
? leisure (e.g. learning a new game or craft).
Ask respondents, when rating themselves, to consider how easily they acquired new
information, how much assistance or repetition they needed in order to learn and how well they
retained what they learned.
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Chapter 7 Question-by-question specifications���57
S4 Joining in community activities (for example, festivities, religious, or other activities) in the same
way as anyone else can?
If necessary, clarify this question using other examples of community activities, such as
attending town meetings, fairs, leisure or sporting activities in the town, neighbourhood or
community. The relevant issue being asked in this question is whether respondents can
participate in these activities or whether their health condition inhibits them from doing so.
If respondents appear confused by the phrase “in the same way as anyone else can”, ask them
to use their judgement to:
? assess the extent to which average people in their community can join community activities;
and
? compare their degree of difficulty in joining community activities in relation to the assessment.
S5 How much have you been emotionally affected by your health problems?
This question refers to the degree to which the respondent has felt an emotional impact due to
the health condition. Emotions may include anger, sorrow, regret, thankfulness, appreciation, or
any other positive or negative emotions.
S6 Concentrating on doing something for ten minutes?
This question is intended to determine the respondent’s rating of difficulty with concentration for
a short period, defined as ten minutes. Generally, respondents have no problem understanding
this item. However, if clarification is requested, encourage respondents to think about their
concentration in usual circumstances, not when they are preoccupied by a problem situation or
are in an unusually distracting environment. If necessary, prompt respondents to think about how
difficult it was to concentrate while doing work tasks, reading, writing, drawing, playing a musical
instrument, assembling a piece of equipment and so on.
S7 Walking a long distance such as a kilometre [or equivalent]?
Convert distances into imperial measure where necessary.
If respondents report that they have not walked this distance in the past 30 days, interviewers
should ask whether this is due to a health condition (as defined by WHODAS 2.0). If respondents
report that lack of walking is due to a health condition, then code the item “5” for “Extreme or
cannot do”. If respondents report that the lack of walking is not due to a health condition, then
code the item “N/A” for “Not applicable”.
S8 Washing your whole body?
This question refers to respondents washing their entire body in whatever manner is usual for
their culture.
If respondents report that they have not washed their bodies in the past 30 days, ask whether
this is due to a health condition (as defined by the WHODAS 2.0). If respondents report that it is
due to a health condition, then code the item “5” for “Extreme or cannot do”. If respondents report
that the lack of washing is not due to a health condition, then code the item “N/A” for “Not
applicable”.
S9 Getting dressed?
This question includes all aspects of dressing the upper and lower body. When making the
rating, ask respondents to consider activities such as gathering clothing from storage areas (i.e.
closet, dressers) and securing buttons, tying knots and so on.
S10 Dealing with people you do not know?
This item refers to interactions with strangers in any situation, such as:
? shop-keepers
? service personnel
? asking someone for directions.
When making the rating, ask respondents to consider both approaching such individuals, and
interacting successfully with them to obtain a desired outcome.
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58��Measuring Health and Disability: WHODAS 2.0
S11 Maintaining a friendship?
This includes:
? staying in touch
? interacting with friends in customary ways
? initiating activities with friends
? participating in activities when invited.
Respondents will sometimes report that they have not engaged in friendship-maintenance
activities in the past 30 days. In this case, ask whether this situation is due to a health condition
(as defined by the WHODAS 2.0). If respondents report that it is due to a health condition, then
code the item “5” for “Extreme or cannot do”. If respondents report that it is not due to a health
condition, then code the item “N/A” for “Not applicable”.
S12 Your day-to-day work/school?
This global question is intended to elicit respondents’ appraisal of difficulties encountered in day-
to-day work or school activities. This includes issues such as attending on time, responding to
supervision, supervising others, planning and organizing, meeting expectations in the workplace
and any other relevant activities.
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59
8 Syntax for automatic computation of overall
score using SPSS
The scoring algorithm listed below is available for download in SPSS format from the WHODAS 2.0 sec-
tion of the WHO web site.
1
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63
9 Guidelines and exercises for use of WHODAS 2.0
This chapter is intended for those administering WHODAS 2.0. Readers should first read Chapter 5
(Section 5.3), which explains the importance of both standardization and privacy in gathering data from
questionnaires. Chapter 5 also provides background information on the frames of reference for answer-
ing questions.
9.1 Interviewer-administered version specifications
This section pertains only to the interviewer-administered versions, and contains information specific to
these versions, including interviewer-administered proxy versions.
As you prepare to administer WHODAS 2.0, it is useful to review some general points about interviewing.
Keep the following points in mind:
? Be serious, pleasant, and self-confident; nervousness can make the respondent feel uneasy.
? Speak slowly and clearly to set the tone for the interview.
? Appear interested in the research.
? Be aware that different respondents require different amounts of information about the study, and
adjust your introductions accordingly.
Some of these points are discussed below.
Make a good introduction
A good introduction to an interview is essential. It communicates the goals of the interview and sets the
tone of the interaction. Be sure to make clear in your introduction:
? your name and professional affiliation;
? that you are a professional interviewer or clinician;
? that you represent a legitimat e and reputable organization;
? that the questionnaire is for gathering information for important, worthwhile research;
? that the respondent’s participation is vital to the success of the research; and
? that responses will be kept confidential to the extent provided for by law or by site-specific
regulations.
Objectives
After reading the subsection on frame of reference for answering in Chapter 5 (Section 5.3), you will
be able to:
? state the six points respondents should take into consideration while answering the WHODAS
2.0 questions; and
? distinguish between “Extreme or cannot do” and “Not applicable” answers.
Objectives
After reading this section on general interviewing instructions, you will be able to:
? identify key features of good interviewing technique;
? list the key points to review during an interview introduction; and
? state two reasons for giving respondent s feedback during the interview.
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64��Measuring Health and Disability: WHODAS 2.0
Provide feedback as necessary
To give feedback, use neutral phrases in reaction to the respondent’s behavior throughout the interview.
Feedback is an effective tool for maintaining control over the interview. It can be used to:
? reinforce focused, attentive respondent behavior; and
? discourage digression, distraction and inappropriate enquiries.
When respondents have inappropriate enquiries (e.g. asking for advice, information or the interviewer’s
personal experiences), use one of these phrases:
? “In this interview, we are really int erested in learning about your experiences.”
? “When we finish, let’s talk about that.”
? “We will come to that later.”
When respondents digress from the questions by giving lengthy responses or providing more informa-
tion than is necessary, use one of these phrases:
? “I have many more questions to ask, so we should move on to those now.”
? “If you would like to talk more about that we can do that at the end of the interview.”
These two sentences are very effective when used together. Silence also can be an effective tool for
discouraging inappropriate responses or conversation.
9.2 Typographical conventions
The interviewer-administered versions use the typographical conventions listed below. Refer to WHO-
DAS 2.0 as you read through this section, to ensure that you are familiar with these rules.
1 Interviewer instructions
Anything written in standard print in blue is meant to be read to the respondent. Anything written in bold
and italics is an interviewer instruction and should not be read aloud.
Example:
B2 How do you rate your physical health in the past 30 days?
(Read response scale to respondent)
In this case, the interviewer would read aloud the response scale.
Objectives
After reading this section on typographical conventions, you will be able to:
? identify and properly use interviewer instructions located throughout WHODAS 2.0; and
? know the meaning of different typefaces (blue ; bold and italics; underlined), parentheses
(brackets) and square brackets.
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Chapter 9 Guidelines and exercises for use of WHODAS 2.0���65
2 Skips within questions
“Skip instructions” are printed in bold and italics. Skips are automatically programmed into the computer
version.
Example:
Before D5.7:
If box is checked, continue, otherwise, skip to Domain 6 on the next page.
3 Underlined type
Within questions, words in underlined typeface are key words or phrases that are to be emphasized
when read to the respondent.
4 Verbatim entries
A blank line or blank computer field is provided when the interviewer is to record the respondent’s an-
swer.
Responses should be recorded exactly as stated.
This type of response is requested when further detail is needed:
Example:
A5 Which describes your main work status best?
(Select the single best option)
Choice 9 Other (specify) _________________
5 Parentheses
Parentheses ( ) contain examples to illustrate a point.
All items in the parentheses are to be read to the respondent.
Example:
S4 How much of a problem did you have joining in community activities (for example, festivities, religious
or other activities) in the same way as anyone else can?
In this case, the interviewer would read aloud the text in parentheses.
6 Square brackets
Square brackets [ ] contain instructions to translators. English-speaking interviewers may also follow
these guidelines if needed to increase the clarity of the question or the applicability in the respondent’s
culture.
Example:
D2.5 Walking a long distance such as a kilometre [or equivalent]
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66��Measuring Health and Disability: WHODAS 2.0
9.3 Using flashcards
Two flashcards are used in WHODAS 2.0 interviewer versions. The purpose of the flashcards is to pro-
vide a visual cue or reminder to the respondent about important pieces of information to remember while
answering questions. Review the flashcards as you read through this section.
Flashcard #1 is the first card to be used in the interview. It provides information about how “health con-
ditions” and “having difficulty” are defined, and reminds the respondent that the timeframe for evaluation
is the past 30 days. The information on this card provides the respondent with useful reminders through-
out the interview.
Flashcard #2 is the second card to be used in the interview. It provides the response scale to be used
for most questions. When introducing this scale, you should read aloud the number and the correspond-
ing word. Respondents may either point to their answer on the scale or provide responses verbally, al-
though the latter is preferred.
? Ensure that flashcards #1 and #2 are visible to the respondent at all times during the interview.
? Follow the interviewer instructions provided t hroughout the instrument, which note when each
flashcard should be pointed out to the respondent.
9.4 Asking the questions
Read the questions in their entirety and in the order they appear to ensure comparability across respon-
dents. Even slight deviations from wording and the ordering of questions can affect responses.
1 Read questions as they are written
Read questions to the respondents exactly as they appear in the questionnaire. There are two excep-
tions to this rule in the administration of WHODAS 2.0 – grammatical changes and verifying responses
– described below
Grammatical changes
If necessary, adjust the wording of a question to make it grammatically correct. This mainly occurs when
only one difficulty is identified in a domain.
Example:
? In response to the question “How much did these difficulties interfere with your life?” if a respondent
indicates only one difficulty in the domain, change the word “difficulties” to the singular “difficulty”
and “these” to “this.”
Objective
After reading this section on flashcards, you will be able to:
? identify and properly use the two WHODAS 2.0 flashcards.
Objective
After reading this section on how to ask WHODAS 2.0 questions, you will be able to:
? use the standardized method for asking questions of respondents.
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Chapter 9 Guidelines and exercises for use of WHODAS 2.0���67
Verifying responses
If necessary, modify the form of the word used in the rating scale to make better sense.
Example:
? In response to the question “How much have you been emotionally affected by your health
condition?” the answer “none” would be odd and grammatically incorrect. In this case, “none” can be
changed to “not at all” to be grammatically correct. Many respondents make this shift automatically
but the interviewer can provide guidance if necessary.
2 Read the entire question
Before accepting an answer, make sure that the respondent has heard the entire question, to ensure
that the person is considering all concepts in the question. If the respondent interrupts before hearing
the whole question, repeat the question, making sure that the respondent hears it through to the end. Do
not assume that a premature response applies to the question as written.
3 Use lead-in phrases
The phrase “how much difficulty did you have in …” is used frequently throughout the interview. Repeat
this phrase more or less frequently, as necessary, to help the respondent to complete the interview or to
make the line of questioning flow more smoothly.
4 Use flashcards where instructed
Most questions use flashcards to remind the respondent of key information. The text (point to flashcard
#) appears at each point where a flashcard is to be shown.
Do not make assumptions about the respondent’s answers. Interviewers often develop a strong sense
of the lifestyle or health condition of a respondent early in the interview and become convinced that an-
swers to some questions will be negative. It is tempting to skip those questions or to introduce them with
a phrase like “I know this probably doesn’t apply to you, but ...” Practices such as these make it impos-
sible to get accurate information or to learn to what extent answers to earlier questions actually do predict
answers to later ones. Avoid making assumptions and avoid the bias toward negative answers created
by interjecting such comments.
9.5 Clarifying unclear responses
Clarification is required when a respondent is unable to answer a question because he or she does not
understand all or some part of the question.
Probing is required when the respondent appears to understand the question and yet offers a response
that does not meet the objective of the question. When this occurs, use non-directive probing or repeat
the questions.
1 Rules for clarification and probing
(a) If you doubt that respondents heard the entire question, repeat it. For example, if
respondents answer irrelevantly or do not appear to understand all aspects of the question,
re-read either the whole question or the portion that was not understood.
(b) When respondents ask about a specific part of the question, repeat only that part.
Objective
After reading this section on clarifying unclear responses, you will be able to:
? use the standardized methods for clarifying and probing.
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68��Measuring Health and Disability: WHODAS 2.0
(c) When asked to repeat one response option, repeat all response options, only omitting a
response option if respondents have already clearly eliminated that option.
(d) Use only the question text or neutral probes to avoid introducing bias into the question.
(e) In repeating a question, it is sometimes helpful to use a neutral introduction to make a
smoother transition; for example, preface the repeated question with:
Overall …
? Let me repeat the question …
? Well, in general …
? Generally speaking …
(f) If respondents ask for clarification about what is being asked, first simply repeat the
question. If respondents do not find this approach helpful, use the explanations as they are
written in the question-by-question specifications given in Chapter 7; do not use any other
definition of terms or explanations.
(g) If respondents request a definition for a term or an explanation that is not in the question-by-
question objectives, instruct them to answer the question using their own definition or
interpretation of the word, phrase or concept in question. To do this, use phrases such as:
Whatever … means to you.
? Whatever you think of as … .
2 Types of probes
Use neutral probes as necessary to help respondents provide descriptions when requested as part of
the interview (i.e. Please describe) or to arrive at a single response. Questions that use the rating scale
should have only one answer circled. Examples of suitable neutral probes include:
? Can you tell me what you mean by that?
? Can you tell me more about that?
? What do you think?
? Which would be closer – slight or moderate?
? Can you think of any others?
? What is your best estimate?
? Can you be more specific?
? Can you give me your best guess?
? Can you provide one overall rating?
3 Common probing situations
The following are common situations that require probing in WHODAS 2.0.
Don’t know
The general rule when respondents give a response of “I don’t know” is to repeat the question. If this is
unsuccessful, probe respondents once before accepting the “don’t know” (DK). An effort at recall should
be encouraged with a probe such as “Could you give me your best estimate?” If respondents still cannot
respond, “DK” is recorded in the left margin. The computerized version of the instrument provides a DK
response category.
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Chapter 9 Guidelines and exercises for use of WHODAS 2.0���69
Not applicable
Respondents may sometimes feel that a question does not apply to their situation; for example, where
they did not encounter the situation being queried (e.g. for question D4.5, regarding sexual activities). In
this case, record the item with N/A in the left margin or with the N/A response choice in the computer
version.
Probe all responses of “not applicable”. If, in the process of probing, it appears that respondents feel a
question is not applicable because they cannot do the activity, score the item as a “5” on the scale “can-
not do.” An appropriate probe in this situation would be:
? Can you tell me why this question does not apply to you?
Reasons given by respondents may include issues such as the activity not being expected of them in
their culture, or the activity not having been experienced in the past 30 days.
Discrepancies
Look out for discrepant responses. Refer respondents back to information on the flashcards as often as
necessary if it seems that such information is being forgotten. For example, where respondents are
clearly answering questions, but are indicating difficulties for reasons other than the health condition. It
can be helpful to use the information on the flashcards as a reminder, but avoid engaging in confrontation
or open ended probing to resolve perceived discrepancies.
9.6 Recording data
Do not use red ink or a red pencil when recording data. Print answers to all open-ended responses clear-
ly using block letters.
Closed questions
Write or type all answers in the spaces provided.
Circling answer
Most questions require that an answer be circled. Make sure that the circle encloses only one number,
because the computer will allow only one response selection.
Interviewer corrections
If an incorrect answer is circled because respondents change their mind or you make a mistake, put a
slash (/) through the incorrect answer and circle the correct answer or write it in above. Answers can
easily be corrected in the computer version of the instrument.
Fill-in codes
Some answers require entry of a number; in this case “right-justify” the answers.
Example:
A3 How many years in all did you spend studying in school, college or university?
The response “Nine years” would be written as “09 years”.
Objective
After reading this section on recording data, you will be able to:
? properly complete WHODAS 2.0 interview forms.
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70��Measuring Health and Disability: WHODAS 2.0
Margin notes
Qualified responses to closed questions
A qualified response is one in which respondents give a codable response, but temper their answer
with conditional descriptions such as “if,” “except” or “but”. Code such answers, and record the qualifica-
tions in the left margin of the form, because such comments may provide information that is important to
the researchers.
Continue to follow the skipping pattern as indicated for the coded response. Sometimes, respondents
will simply explain their responses rather than qualify them. Explanations are often signaled by words
such as “because,” “when,” or sometimes by the use of a synonym for the response. Do not record such
respondent comments in the margins.
Uncertainty about respondent’s answer
If uncertain about a respondent’s answer, repeat the question and record the answer exactly (i.e. when
in doubt, do not paraphrase a response). If clear about a response but unsure about how to code it, re-
cord enough information in the left margin to allow the principal investigator or study coordinator to make
a decision. Also use a question mark (?) in the left margin to indicate the uncertainty to the principal in-
vestigator or study coordinator.
Missing data
Missed questions
If a question is accidentally missed during the interview, enter “MISSED” in the left margin of the form.
This indicates to the editor that the question was not asked.
If a missed question is noticed during an interview, go back and ask the question, making a note in the
margin that the question was asked out of sequence.
If a missed question is only discovered after the interview, decide whether to recontact the respondent
or accept the missing data. The computer-administered version will not allow the interview to progress
if a question is not answered.
Refusal to answer
Always record refusals to answer questions, by writing “REFUSED (RF)” in the left margin or in the
blanks provided for recording the response. When using the computerized version of the instrument,
score refused questions as “don’t know.” If there is a refusal to respond to an open-ended question when
using the computerized version, type “respondent refused” in the field provided for the answer.
Skipped questions
Questions skipped due to the skip rules should be left blank. Skips built into the computer version will
automatically bypass questions.
Post-interview editing
When conducting an interview, there may be times when it is necessary to compromise data recording
to maintain the flow of the interaction. To ensure that all data are recorded in a way that is meaningful,
clear and readable to the researchers, edit the recorded data as necessary after the interview, as de-
scribed below.
? Shortly after finishing each interview – and bef ore starting the next – thoroughly check that all
questions were completely and legibly answered. Where possible, do this while the respondent is
present so that the person can help in correcting any omissions, if necessary.
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Chapter 9 Guidelines and exercises for use of WHODAS 2.0���71
? During post-editing, enter “MISSED” in the left margin next to any question that was unintentionally
skipped during the interview.
? Turn completed interviews in to the study supervis or promptly, no less than once a week, so that
any errors in administration can be noted and procedures corrected before further interviews are
conducted.
9.7 Problems and solutions
A list of common problems found in administering WHODAS 2.0 and the solutions to these problems is
given below.
Solution
WHODAS 2.0 seeks to determine the amount of difficulty encountered in activities that respondents ac-
tually do as opposed to activities they would like to do or those they can do, but don’t.
If a respondent is prevented from doing an activity due to a health condition, rate the item as “5” for “Ex-
treme or cannot do”.
If a respondent has not experienced an activity in the past 30 days, but this is not due to a health condi-
tion, code the item as “N/A” for “Not applicable”.
Solution
WHODAS 2.0 measures responses from the perspective of the respondent or – in the case of proxy ver-
sions – from a proxy respondent referring to the primary respondent’s functioning. Although an interview-
er might not always agree with the respondent’s answer, the answer given must be the one recorded.
This may be frustrating, but researchers must follow this standard to provide consistency in administra-
tion of the instrument.
Solution
If the respondent does not give clear answers, probe the respondent for further clarification.
Problem
I am having difficulty knowing when to code “not applicable” and when to code “cannot do.”
Problem
The respondent gives an answer that does not correspond with my (or others) understanding of the
respondent’s current functioning.
Problem
The respondent does not give a clearly codable answer.
Problem
The respondent becomes annoyed by repetitious questions.
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72��Measuring Health and Disability: WHODAS 2.0
Solution
Some of the WHODAS 2.0 questions sound similar. In some cases, the respondent may become an-
noyed and assume that the interviewer was not listening to a previous response. In this situation, the
interviewer has two options:
? Ask the question with a preface – that is, read the question with a preface that acknowledges
previous responses; for example
- “You told me before that...., but I still need to ask you this question as it is written.”
? Confirm the response – that is, reword the question in a way that confirms the information that the
respondent already gave; for example
- “You told me before that....Is that correct?”
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Chapter 10 Test yourself���73
10 Test yourself
This chapter allows readers to complete a final review of the material covered in this training manual.
Complete the questions, and turn to page 78 of this manual to check your answers. Next to each answer
in parentheses is the section that provides the information from which the answer is derived. If you an-
swer a question incorrectly, return to the section indicated and re-read that portion of the training manual.
The more thoroughly you know the material contained within the training manual, the easier it will be to
implement WHODAS 2.0.
10.1 Questions
1. A respondent has not walked one kilometre in the past 30 days due to a leg fracture, this
item would be coded as:
� a. “Extreme or cannot do”
� b. “Not applicable”
2. A respondent has a spinal cord injury, and is unable to wash her body on her own.
However, she usually has the help of a personal assistant, and has no difficulty washing
her body with this assistance. The difficulty of this activity would be coded as:
� a. “Extreme or cannot do”
� b. “None”
3. In interviewer-administered versions of the WHODAS 2.0, anything written in standard
print is meant to be read to the respondent.
� a. True
� b. False
4. The interviewer must read aloud each example contained in parentheses to illustrate the
point.
� a. True
� b. False
5. A respondent can either point to his answer on a flashcard, or may provide responses
verbally.
� a. True
� b. False
6. If a respondent interrupts the interviewer before hearing the whole question, the
interviewer must repeat the question from the beginning.
� a. True
� b. False
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74��Measuring Health and Disability: WHODAS 2.0
7. If a respondent asks about a specific part of a question, the entire question should be
repeated.
� a. True
� b. False
8. If a respondent gives a response of “I don’t know”, and a probing question does not elicit
another response, the interviewer should then record the original answer.
� a. True
� b. False
9. Interviewers can use open-ended probing to resolve perceived discrepancies in a
respondent’s answers.
� a. True
� b. False
10. If a respondent gives an answer that does not correspond with the interviewer’s
understanding of the respondent’s current functioning, the answer recorded should be:
� a. The respondent’s version
� b. The interviewer’s version
11. If a person is unable to report on his own difficulties, a proxy report can be used. In this
case, the proxy should complete the:
� a. Self-report version, answering how they perceive the primary respondent would
respond
� b. Proxy version, providing his or her own perceptions
12. In WHODAS 2.0, “health conditions” include physical and mental illnesses, as well as
alcohol and drug problems.
� a. True
� b. False
13. Standardization means that you administer the interview using the same procedures every
time.
� a. True
� b. False
14. In WHODAS 2.0, health conditions include physical and mental illnesses, injuries, but not
alcohol or drug problems.
� a. True
� b. False
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Chapter 10 Test yourself���75
15. Respondents should answer questions taking into account the degree of difficulty they
experience ______ the use of assistive devices or personal assistants.
� a. with
� b. without
16. Respondents should answer questions taking into account the worst day(s) they have
experienced in the past 30 days.
� a. True
� b. False
17. A respondent answers that she has not attempted to learn new tasks in the past 30 days.
Upon probing by the interviewer, she clarifies that this is not due to a health condition. This
response should be rated:
� a. Not applicable
� b. Extreme or cannot do
18. The date is to be written in the European format of day/month/year.
� a. True
� b. False
19. When making your introduction, be sure to state (check two):
� a. The purpose of the evaluation
� b. That information will be kept confidential
� c. The similar types of problems you have experienced in your own life
20. As a general rule, it is a good idea to speak more rapidly than usual so you can finish the
interview as quickly as possible.
� a. True
� b. False
21. When respondents provide more information than seems necessary:
� a. Make a careful note of the comments in the margin
� b. Tell the participant that you have many more questions to ask
22. In WHODAS 2.0, anything written in standard print is meant to be read to the respondent.
� a. True
� b. False
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76��Measuring Health and Disability: WHODAS 2.0
23. Text written in parentheses should be read only if respondents request clarification.
� a. True
� b. False
24. Text underlined should be emphasized to respondents.
� a. True
� b. False
25. It is important to introduce both flashcards at the beginning of the interview.
� a. True
� b. False
26. Once the flashcards are introduced, they should remain visible to the respondent
throughout the interview.
� a. True
� b. False
27. In general, questions should be read to respondents exactly as they appear in the
questionnaire.
� a. True
� b. False
28. If a respondent answers before you have read the entire question, you should:
� a. Accept the answer
� b. Read the remainder of the question
� c. Re-read the entire question
29. You should use the lead-in phrase “how much difficulty did you have in …”
� a. Before every question linked to this phrase
� b. More or less frequently to make the line of questioning flow smoothly
30. Probing is used when the respondent appears to understand the question, but does not
provide a response that meets the objective of the question.
� a. True
� b. False
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Chapter 10 Test yourself���77
31. The interviewer must repeat all response options, even if the respondent asks the
interviewer to just repeat one response option.
� a. True
� b. False
32. Neutral probes should be used rather than repeating the question text.
� a. True
� b. False
33. Interviewers can use the following to record data (check all that apply):
� a. Blue pen or pencil
� b. Red pen or pencil
� c. Black pen
� d. Green pen
� e. Pencil
34. When filling in blanks, answers should be “left-justified”.
� a. True
� b. False
35. When a respondent clarifies a response with “because” or “when”, the interviewer must
record these answers in the margin.
� a. True
� b. False
36. As soon as an interviewer realizes that a question has been skipped, the interviewer must
ask the missed question, and make a note in the margin stating that the question was
asked out of sequence.
� a. True
� b False
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78��Measuring Health and Disability: WHODAS 2.0
10.2 Test yourself: Answers
1.a (Chapter 5 Section 5.3: Training in the use
of WHODAS 2.0)
19.a, b (Chapter 9, Section 9.1: Interviewer-ad-
ministered version specifications)
2. b (Chapter 5 Section 5.3: Training in the use
of WHODAS 2.0)
20. b (Chapter 9, Section 9.1: Interviewer-admin-
istered version specifications)
3.a (Chapter 9, Section 9.2: Typographical con-
ventions)
21.b (Chapter 9, Section 9.1: Interviewer-admin-
istered version specifications)
4.a (Chapter 9, Section 9.2: Typographical con-
ventions)
22.a (Chapter 9, Section 9.2: Typographical con-
ventions)
5.a (Chapter 9, Section 9.3: Using flashcards) 23.b (Chapter 9, Section 9.2: Typographical con-
ventions)
6.a (Chapter 9, Section 9.5: Clarifying unclear re-
sponses)
24.b (Chapter 9, Section 9.2: Typographical con-
ventions)
7.b (Chapter 9, Section 9.5: Clarifying unclear re-
sponses)
25.b (Chapter 9, Section 9.3: Using flashcards)
8.a (Chapter 9, Section 9.5: Clarifying unclear re-
sponses)
26.a (Chapter 9, Section 9.3: Using flashcards)
9.b (Chapter 9, Section 9.5: Clarifying unclear re-
sponses)
27.a (Chapter 9: Section 9.4: Asking the ques-
tions)
10.a (Chapter 9, Section 9.5: Clarifying unclear
responses)
28.c (Chapter 9: Section 9.4: Asking the ques-
tions)
11.b (Chapter 5, Section 5.2: Modes of adminis-
trating WHODAS 2.0)
29.b (Chapter 9: Section 9.4: Asking the ques-
tions)
12.a (Chapter 5 Section 5.3: Training in the use
of WHODAS 2.0)
30.a (Chapter 9, Section 9.5: Clarifying unclear
responses)
13.a (Chapter 5, Section 5.3: Training in the use
of WHODAS 2.0)
31.a (Chapter 9, Section 9.5: Clarifying unclear
responses)
14.b (Chapter 5, Section 5.3: Training in the use
of WHODAS 2.0)
32.b (Chapter 9, Section 9.5: Clarifying unclear
responses)
15.a (Chapter 5, Section 5.3: Training in the use
of WHODAS 2.0)
33.a,c,d,e (Chapter 9, Section 9.6: Recording da-
ta)
16.b (Chapter 5, Section 5.3: Training in the use
of WHODAS 2.0)
34.b (Chapter 9, Section 9.6: Recording data)
17.a (Chapter 9, Section 9.7: Problems and solu-
tions)
35.b (Chapter 9, Section 9.6: Recording data)
18.a (Chapter 7, Section 7.3: Questions F1–F7:
Face sheet
36.a (Chapter 9, Section 9.6: Recording data)
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79
Glossary
Activity
In the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF), the term “activity” is used
in the broadest sense to capture the execution of a task or action by an individual at any level of com-
plexity. It represents the individual’s own perspective of their functioning. Activities include simple or ba-
sic physical functions of the person as a whole (e.g. grasping or moving a leg), basic and complex mental
functions (e.g. learning and applying knowledge), and collections of physical and mental activities at var-
ious levels of complexity (e.g. driving a car, interacting with people). Other examples of activities include
taking care of oneself and household work activities.
Activity limitations
Difficulties an individual may have in executing activities. An activity limitation encompasses all of the
ways in which the execution of the activity may be affected; for example, doing the activity with pain or
discomfort; too slowly or quickly, or not at the right time and place; awkwardly or otherwise not in the
manner expected. Activity limitation may range from a slight to severe deviation (in terms of quality or
quantity) in doing the activity, in a manner or to the extent that is expected of people without the health
condition.
Assistive devices
All equipment or devices used by an individual to help with completion of an activity because of a health
condition. Devices may be expensive (e.g. computers to aid communication) or simple (e.g. long-han-
dled sponges for bathing).
Barriers or hindrances
External factors in a person’s environment that, through their absence or presence, limit functioning and
create disability. Includes aspects such as an inaccessible physical environment; lack of relevant assis-
tive technology; negative attitudes of people towards disability; and services, systems and policies that
are lacking or that hinder the involvement of all people with a health condition in any area of life.
Contextual factors
The complete background to a person’s life and living, including external environmental factors and in-
ternal personal factors.
Difficulty
Experiencing discomfort, pain or slowness; needing to use increased effort; or having to make changes
in the way an activity is done.
Disability
An umbrella term for impairments, activity limitations and participation restrictions. Denotes the negative
aspects of the interaction between an individual (with a health condition) and that individual’s environ-
mental and personal context.
Environmental factors
Contextual factors that include the background of a person’s life and living, composed of components of
the natural environment (weather or terrain); the human-made environment (tools, furnishing, the built
environment); social attitudes, customs, rules, practices and institutions, and other individuals.
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80��Measuring Health and Disability: WHODAS 2.0
Facilitators
Factors in a person’s environment that, through their absence or presence, improve functioning and re-
duce disability. Includes aspects such as an accessible physical environment; availability of relevant as-
sistive technology; positive attitudes of people towards disability; and services, systems and policies that
aim to increase the involvement of all people with a health condition in all areas of life. Absence of a
factor can also be facilitating (e.g. the absence of stigma or negative attitudes). Facilitators can prevent
an impairment or activity limitation from becoming a participation restriction, since the actual perfor-
mance of an action is improved, despite the person’s problem with capacity.
Functioning
An umbrella term for body functions, body structures, activities and participation. Denotes the positive
aspects of the interaction between an individual (with a health condition) and that individual’s environ-
mental and personal context.
Household activities
Activities involved with the physical, emotional, financial and psychological needs of the household or
family. Includes tasks traditionally performed by men, such as managing finances, car and home repairs;
caring for the outside area of the home; picking up children from school; helping with homework; and
disciplining children.
Health condition
A disease that is short or long lasting; an injury (e.g. sustained in an accident); mental or emotional prob-
lems, which may range from stress due to day-to-day problems of living to more serious forms of mental
illness; or problems with alcohol or drugs.
Impairment
Loss or abnormality in body structure or physiological function (including mental functions). “Abnormal-
ity” here strictly refers to a significant variation from established statistical norms (i.e. as a deviation from
a population mean within measured standard norms) and should be used only in this sense. Examples
of impairments include loss of an arm or leg or loss of vision. In the case of an injury to the spine, an
impairment would be the resulting paralysis.
Participation
A person’s involvement in a life situation. Represents the societal perspective of functioning.
Participation restrictions
Problems an individual may experience in involvement in life situations. Determined by comparing an
individual’s participation to that which is expected of an individual without disability in that culture or so-
ciety.
Personal assistance
Any assistance from a person used to aid in the execution of an activity. May be paid or unpaid and may
be completed by a family member or hired help. Personal assistance can take the form of actual physical
help, or may involve verbal reminders, cues, prompts, presence, supervision or psychological help.
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Glossary���81
Personal factors
Contextual factors that include the background of a person’s life and living, composed of features that
are not part of a health condition or disability. Includes age, race, gender, educational background, ex-
periences, personality and character style, aptitudes, other health conditions, fitness lifestyle, habits, up-
bringing, coping styles, social background, profession, and past and current experience.
Sexual activity
As assessed by WHODAS 2.0, sexual activity includes hugging, kissing, fondling, other intimate or sex-
ual acts, and sexual intercourse.
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82��Measuring Health and Disability: WHODAS 2.0
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�83
References
1. World Health Organization. World health report 2000. Geneva, WHO, 2000.
2. World Health Organization. International classification of functioning, disability and health (ICF).
Geneva, World Health Organization, 2001.
3. Üstün TB et al. Disability and culture: universalism and diversity. Seattle, Hogrefe & Huber Pub-
lishers, 2001.
4. Üstün TB et al. World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule II (WHO DAS II): de-
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84 �Measuring Health and Disability: WHODAS 2.0
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References��85
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86 �Measuring Health and Disability: WHODAS 2.0
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References��87
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88 �Measuring Health and Disability: WHODAS 2.0
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WHODAS 2.0 VERSIONS
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90��Measuring Health and Disability: WHODAS 2.0
This section contains the seven paper-based versions of WHODAS 2.0:
? three 36-item versions:
- interview-administered
- self-administered
- proxy-administered
? three 12-item versions:
- interview-administered
- self-administered
- proxy-administered
? one 12+24-item version:
- interview-administered.
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36-item version, interviewer-administered
Introduction
This instrument was developed by the WHO Classification, Terminology and Standards team, within
the framework of the WHO/National Institutes of Health (NIH) Joint Project on Assessment and
Classification of Disability.
Before using this instrument, interviewers must be trained using the manual Measuring Health and
Disability: Manual for WHO Disability Assessment Schedule – WHODAS 2.0 (WHO 2010), which
includes an interview guide and other training material.
The versions of the interview available are as follows:
? 36-item – Interviewer-administered
a
? 36-item – Self-administered
? 36-item – Proxy-administered
b
? 12-item – Interviewer-administered
c
? 12-item – Self-administered
? 12-item – Proxy-administered
? 12+24-item – Interviewer-administered

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For more details of the versions please refer to the WHODAS 2.0 manual Measuring Health and
Disability: Manual for WHO Disability Assessment Schedule – WHODAS 2.0 (WHO 2010).
Permission to translate this instrument into any language should be obtained from WHO, and all
translations should be prepared according to the WHO translation guidelines, as detailed in the
accompanying manual.
For additional information, please visit www.who.int/whodas or contact:
Dr T Bedirhan Üstün
Classification, Terminology and Standards
Health Statistics and Informatics
World Health Organization (WHO)
1211 Geneva 27
Switzerland
Tel: + 41 22 791 3609
E-mail:ustunb@who.int
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Interview
This questionnaire contains the interviewer-administered 36-item version of WHODAS 2.0.
Instructions to the interviewer are written in bold and italics – do not read these aloud.
Text for the respondent to hear is written in
standard print in blue.
Read this text aloud.
Section 1 Face sheet
Complete items F1–F5 before starting each interview
F1
Respondent identity number
F2
Interviewer identity number
F3
Assessment time point (1, 2, etc.)
F4
Interview date
______ ______ ______
day month year
F5
Living situation at time of interview
(circle only one)
Independent in community 1
Assisted living 2
Hospitalized 3
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Section 2 Demographic and background information
This interview has been developed by the World Health Organization (WHO) to better understand the
difficulties people may have due to their health conditions. The information that you provide in this
interview is confidential and will be used only for research. The interview will take 15–20 minutes to
complete.
For respondents from the general population (not the clinical population) say:
Even if you are healthy and have no difficulties, I need to ask all of the questions so that the survey is
complete.
I will start with some background questions.
A1 Record sex as observed Female 1
Male 2
A2 How old are you now? ______ years
A3 How many years in all did you spend studying in school,
college or university? ______ years
A4
What is your current marital status?
(Select the single best option)
Never married 1
Currently married 2
Separated 3
Divorced 4
Widowed 5
Cohabiting 6
A5
Which describes your main work status best?
(Select the single best option)
Paid work 1
Self employed, such as
own your business or
farming
2
Non-paid work, such as
volunteer or charity
3
Student 4
Keeping house/
homemaker
5
Retired 6
Unemployed (health
reasons)
7
Unemployed (other
reasons)
8
Other
(specify)______________
_____________________
9
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Section 3 Preamble
Say to respondent:
The interview is about difficulties people have because of health conditions.
Hand flashcard #1 to respondent and say:
By health condition I mean diseases or illnesses, or other health problems that may be short or long
lasting; injuries; mental or emotional problems; and problems with alcohol or drugs.
Remember to keep all of your health problems in mind as you answer the questions. When I ask you
about difficulties in doing an activity think about …
Point to flashcard #1 and explain that “difficulty with an activity” means:
? Increased effort
? Discomfort or pain
Slowness
? Changes in the way you do the activity.
Say to respondent:
When answering, I’d like you to think back over the past 30 days. I would also like you to answer these
questions thinking about how much difficulty you have had, on average, over the past 30 days, while
doing the activity as you usually do it.
Hand flashcard #2 to respondent and say:
Use this scale when responding.
Read the scale aloud:
None, mild, moderate, severe, extreme or cannot do.
Ensure that the respondent can easily see flashcards #1 and #2 throughout the interview
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Section 4 Domain reviews
Domain 1 Cognition
I am now going to ask some questions about understanding and communicating.
Show flashcards #1 and #2 to respondent
Domain 2 Mobility
I am now going to ask you about difficulties in getting around.
Show flashcards #1 and #2
Please continue to next page...
In the past 30 days, how much difficulty did you
have in:
None Mild Moderate Severe Extreme or
cannot do
D1.1 Concentrating on doing something for
ten minutes?
12 3 4 5
D1.2 Remembering to do important things? 12 3 4 5
D1.3 Analysing and finding solutions to
problems in day-to-day life?
12 3 4 5
D1.4 Learning a new task, for example,
learning how to get to a new place?
12 3 4 5
D1.5 Generally understanding what people
say?
12 3 4 5
D1.6 Starting and maintaining a
conversation?
12 3 4 5
In the past 30 days, how much difficulty did you
have in:
None Mild Moderate Severe Extreme or
cannot do
D2.1 Standing for long periods such as 30
minutes?
12 3 4 5
D2.2 Standing up from sitting down? 12 3 4 5
D2.3 Moving around inside your home? 12 3 4 5
D2.4 Getting out of your home? 12 3 4 5
D2.5 Walking a long distance such as a
kilometre [or equivalent]?
12 3 4 5
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Interview
Domain 3 Self-care
I am now going to ask you about difficulties in taking care of yourself.
Show flashcards #1 and #2
Domain 4 Getting along with people
I am now going to ask you about difficulties in getting along with people. Please remember that I am
asking only about difficulties that are due to health problems. By this I mean diseases or illnesses,
injuries, mental or emotional problems and problems with alcohol or drugs.
Show flashcards #1 and #2
Please continue to next page...
In the past 30 days, how much difficulty did you
have in:
None Mild Moderate Severe Extreme
or cannot
do
D3.1 Washing your whole body? 12 3 4 5
D3.2 Getting dressed? 12 3 4 5
D3.3 Eating? 12 3 4 5
D3.4 Staying by yourself for a few days? 12 3 4 5
In the past 30 days, how much difficulty did you
have in:
None Mild Moderate Severe Extreme
or cannot
do
D4.1 Dealing with people you do not know? 12 3 4 5
D4.2 Maintaining a friendship? 12 3 4 5
D4.3 Getting along with people who are close
to you?
12 3 4 5
D4.4 Making new friends? 12 3 4 5
D4.5 Sexual activities? 12 3 4 5
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Interview
Domain 5 Life activities
5(1) Household activities
I am now going to ask you about activities involved in maintaining your household, and in caring for the
people who you live with or are close to. These activities include cooking, cleaning, shopping, caring for
others and caring for your belongings.
Show flashcards #1 and #2
If any of the responses to D5.2–D5.5 are rated greater than none (coded as “1”), ask:
If respondent works (paid, non-paid, self-employed) or goes to school, complete questions
D5.5–D5.10 on the next page. Otherwise, skip to D6.1 on the following page.
Because of your health condition, in the past 30
days, how much difficulty did you have in:
None Mild Moderate Severe Extreme
or cannot
do
D5.1 Taking care of your household
responsibilities?
12 3 4 5
D5.2 Doing your most important household
tasks well?
12 3 4 5
D5.3 Getting all the household work done
that you needed to do?
12 3 4 5
D5.4 Getting your household work done as
quickly as needed?
12 3 4 5
D5.01 In the past 30 days, on how many days did you reduce or
completely miss household work because of your health
condition?
Record number of days ____
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5(2) Work or school activities
Now I will ask some questions about your work or school activities.
Show flashcards #1 and #2
If any of D5.5–D5.8 are rated greater than none (coded as “1”), ask:
Please continue to next page...
Because of your health condition, in the past 30
days how much difficulty did you have in:
None Mild Moderate Severe Extreme
or cannot
do
D5.5 Your day-to-day work/school? 12 3 4 5
D5.6 Doing your most important work/school
tasks well?
12 3 4 5
D5.7 Getting all the work done that you need
to do?
12 3 4 5
D5.8 Getting your work done as quickly as
needed?
12 3 4 5
D5.9 Have you had to work at a lower level because of a health condition? No 1
Yes 2
D5.10 Did you earn less money as the result of a health condition? No 1
Yes 2
D5.02 In the past 30 days, on how many days did you miss work for
half a day or more because of your health condition? Record number of days ____
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Interview
Domain 6 Participation
Now, I am going to ask you about your participation in society and the impact of your health problems
on you and your family. Some of these questions may involve problems that go beyond the past 30
days, however in answering, please focus on the past 30 days. Again, I remind you to answer these
questions while thinking about health problems: physical, mental or emotional, alcohol or drug related.
Show flashcards #1 and #2
In the past 30 days: None Mild Moderate Severe Extreme or
cannot do
D6.1 How much of a problem did you have
joining in community activities (for
example, festivities, religious or other
activities) in the same way as anyone
else can?
12 3 4 5
D6.2 How much of a problem did you have
because of barriers or hindrances in the
world around you?
12 3 4 5
D6.3 How much of a problem did you have
living with dignity because of the
attitudes and actions of others?
12 3 4 5
D6.4 How much time did you spend on your
health condition or its consequences?
12 3 4 5
D6.5 How much have you been emotionally
affected by your health condition?
12 3 4 5
D6.6 How much has your health been a drain
on the financial resources of you or
your family?
12 3 4 5
D6.7 How much of a problem did your family
have because of your health problems?
12 3 4 5
D6.8 How much of a problem did you have in
doing things by yourself for relaxation or
pleasure?
12 3 4 5
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36
Interview
This concludes the interview. Thank you for participating.
H1 Overall, in the past 30 days, how many days were these
difficulties present? Record number of days ____
H2 In the past 30 days, for how many days were you totally
unable to carry out your usual activities or work because of
any health condition?
Record number of days ____
H3 In the past 30 days, not counting the days that you were
totally unable, for how many days did you cut back or reduce
your usual activities or work because of any health condition?
Record number of days ____
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Flashcard 1
Health conditions:
? Diseases, illnesses or other health problems
? Injuries
? Mental or emotional problems
? Problems with alcohol
? Problems with drugs
Having difficulty with an activity means:
? Increased effort
? Discomfort or pain
? Slowness
? Changes in the way you do the activity
Think about the past 30 days only.
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36-item version, self-administered
This questionnaire asks about difficulties due to health conditions. Health conditions include diseases or
illnesses, other health problems that may be short or long lasting, injuries, mental or emotional problems,
and problems with alcohol or drugs.
Think back over the past 30 days and answer these questions, thinking about how much difficulty you
had doing the following activities. For each question, please circle only one response.
Please continue to next page …
In the past 30 days, how much difficulty did you have in:
Understanding and communicating
D1.1 Concentrating on doing something for ten
minutes?
None Mild Moderate Severe Extreme or
cannot do
D1.2 Remembering to do important things? None Mild Moderate Severe Extreme or
cannot do
D1.3 Analysing and finding solutions to
problems in day-to-day life?
None Mild Moderate Severe Extreme or
cannot do
D1.4 Learning a new task, for example, learning
how to get to a new place?
None Mild Moderate Severe Extreme or
cannot do
D1.5 Generally understanding what people say? None Mild Moderate Severe Extreme or
cannot do
D1.6 Starting and maintaining a conversation? None Mild Moderate Severe Extreme or
cannot do
Getting around
D2.1 Standing for long periods such as 30
minutes?
None Mild Moderate Severe Extreme or
cannot do
D2.2 Standing up from sitting down? None Mild Moderate Severe Extreme or
cannot do
D2.3 Moving around inside your home? None Mild Moderate Severe Extreme or
cannot do
D2.4 Getting out of your home? None Mild Moderate Severe Extreme or
cannot do
D2.5 Walking a long distance such as a
kilometre [or equivalent]?
None Mild Moderate Severe Extreme or
cannot do
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36
Self
Please continue to next page …
In the past 30 days, how much difficulty did you have in:
Self-care
D3.1 Washing your whole body? None Mild Moderate Severe Extreme or
cannot do
D3.2 Getting dressed? None Mild Moderate Severe Extreme or
cannot do
D3.3 Eating? None Mild Moderate Severe Extreme or
cannot do
D3.4 Staying by yourself for a few days? None Mild Moderate Severe Extreme or
cannot do
Getting along with people
D4.1 Dealing with people you do not know? None Mild Moderate Severe Extreme or
cannot do
D4.2 Maintaining a friendship? None Mild Moderate Severe Extreme or
cannot do
D4.3 Getting along with people who are close to
you?
None Mild Moderate Severe Extreme or
cannot do
D4.4 Making new friends? None Mild Moderate Severe Extreme or
cannot do
D4.5 Sexual activities? None Mild Moderate Severe Extreme or
cannot do
Life activities
D5.1 Taking care of your household
responsibilities?
None Mild Moderate Severe Extreme or
cannot do
D5.2 Doing most important household tasks
well?
None Mild Moderate Severe Extreme or
cannot do
D5.3 Getting all the household work done that
you needed to do?
None Mild Moderate Severe Extreme or
cannot do
D5.4 Getting your household work done as
quickly as needed?
None Mild Moderate Severe Extreme or
cannot do
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36
Self
If you work (paid, non-paid, self-employed) or go to school, complete questions D5.5–D5.8, below. Oth-
erwise, skip to D6.1.
Please continue to next page …
Because of your health condition, in the past 30 days, how much difficulty did you have in:
D5.5 Your day-to-day work/school? None Mild Moderate Severe Extreme or
cannot do
D5.6 Doing your most important work/school
tasks well?
None Mild Moderate Severe Extreme or
cannot do
D5.7 Getting all the work done that you need to
do?
None Mild Moderate Severe Extreme or
cannot do
D5.8 Getting your work done as quickly as
needed?
None Mild Moderate Severe Extreme or
cannot do
Participation in society
In the past 30 days:
D6.1 How much of a problem did you have in
joining in community activities (for example,
festivities, religious or other activities) in the
same way as anyone else can?
None Mild Moderate Severe Extreme or
cannot do
D6.2 How much of a problem did you have
because of barriers or hindrances in the
world around you?
None Mild Moderate Severe Extreme or
cannot do
D6.3 How much of a problem did you have living
with dignity because of the attitudes and
actions of others?
None Mild Moderate Severe Extreme or
cannot do
D6.4 How much time did you spend on your
health condition, or its consequences?
None Mild Moderate Severe Extreme or
cannot do
D6.5 How much have you been emotionally
affected by your health condition?
None Mild Moderate Severe Extreme or
cannot do
D6.6 How much has your health been a drain on
the financial resources of you or your
family?
None Mild Moderate Severe Extreme or
cannot do
D6.7 How much of a problem did your family
have because of your health problems?
None Mild Moderate Severe Extreme or
cannot do
D6.8 How much of a problem did you have in
doing things by yourself for relaxation or
pleasure?
None Mild Moderate Severe Extreme or
cannot do
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36
Self
This completes the questionnaire. Thank you.
H1 Overall, in the past 30 days, how many days were these
difficulties present? Record number of days ____
H2 In the past 30 days, for how many days were you totally
unable to carry out your usual activities or work because of
any health condition?
Record number of days ____
H3 In the past 30 days, not counting the days that you were
totally unable, for how many days did you cut back or reduce
your usual activities or work because of any health condition?
Record number of days ____
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36-item version, proxy-administered
This questionnaire asks about difficulties due to health conditions experienced by the person about
whom you are responding in your role as friend, relative or carer. Health conditions include diseases or
illnesses, other health problems that may be short or long lasting, injuries, mental or emotional problems,
and problems with alcohol or drugs.
Think back over the past 30 days and, to the best of your knowledge, answer these questions thinking
about how much difficulty your friend, relative or carer had while doing the following activities. (Note: the
questionnaire uses the term “relative” to mean “friend”, “relative” or “carer”.) For each question, please
circle only one response.
a
Questions H1–H3 appear at the end of the questionnaire.
Please continue to next page …
H4
a
I am the ___________ (choose
one) of this person.
1 = husband or wife 5 = other relative
2 = parent 6 = friend
3 = son or daughter 7 = professional carer
4 = brother or sister 8 = other (specify)
______________
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36
Proxy
Please continue to next page …
In the past 30 days, how much difficulty did your relative have in:
Understanding and communicating
D1.1 Concentrating on doing something for ten
minutes?
None Mild Moderate Severe Extreme or
cannot do
D1.2 Remembering to do important things? None Mild Moderate Severe Extreme or
cannot do
D1.3 Analysing and finding solutions to problems
in day-to-day life?
None Mild Moderate Severe Extreme or
cannot do
D1.4 Learning a new task, for example, learning
how to get to a new place?
None Mild Moderate Severe Extreme or
cannot do
D1.5 Generally understanding what people say? None Mild Moderate Severe Extreme or
cannot do
D1.6 Starting and maintaining a conversation? None Mild Moderate Severe Extreme or
cannot do
Getting around
D2.1 Standing for long periods such as 30
minutes?
None Mild Moderate Severe Extreme or
cannot do
D2.2 Standing up from sitting down? None Mild Moderate Severe Extreme or
cannot do
D2.3 Moving around inside their home? None Mild Moderate Severe Extreme or
cannot do
D2.4 Getting out of their home? None Mild Moderate Severe Extreme or
cannot do
D2.5 Walking a long distance such as a
kilometre [or equivalent]?
None Mild Moderate Severe Extreme or
cannot do
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36
Proxy
If your relative works (paid, non-paid, self-employed) or goes to school, complete questions D5.5–D5.8,
below. Otherwise, skip to D6.1 near the top of the following page.
Because of their health condition, in the past 30 days, how much difficulty did your relative have in:
Self-care
D3.1 Washing his or her whole body? None Mild Moderate Severe Extreme or
cannot do
D3.2 Getting dressed? None Mild Moderate Severe Extreme or
cannot do
D3.3 Eating? None Mild Moderate Severe Extreme or
cannot do
D3.4 Staying by himself or herself for a few
days?
None Mild Moderate Severe Extreme or
cannot do
Getting along with people
D4.1 Dealing with people he or she does not
know?
None Mild Moderate Severe Extreme or
cannot do
D4.2 Maintaining a friendship? None Mild Moderate Severe Extreme or
cannot do
D4.3 Getting along with people who are close to
him or her?
None Mild Moderate Severe Extreme or
cannot do
D4.4 Making new friends? None Mild Moderate Severe Extreme or
cannot do
D4.5 Sexual activities? None Mild Moderate Severe Extreme or
cannot do
Life activities
D5.1 Taking care of his or her household
responsibilities?
None Mild Moderate Severe Extreme or
cannot do
D5.2 Doing his or her most important household
tasks well?
None Mild Moderate Severe Extreme or
cannot do
D5.3 Getting all the household work done that is
needed?
None Mild Moderate Severe Extreme or
cannot do
D5.4 Getting the household work done as
quickly as needed?
None Mild Moderate Severe Extreme or
cannot do
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36
Proxy
Please continue to next page …
In the past 30 days, how much difficulty did your relative have in:
D5.5 His or her day-to-day work/school? None Mild Moderate Severe Extreme or
cannot do
D5.6 Doing his or her most important work/
school tasks well?
None Mild Moderate Severe Extreme or
cannot do
D5.7 Getting all the work done that is needed? None Mild Moderate Severe Extreme or
cannot do
D5.8 Getting the work done as quickly as
needed?
None Mild Moderate Severe Extreme or
cannot do
Participation in society in the past 30 days
D6.1 How much of a problem did your relative
have in joining in community activities (for
example, festivities, religious or other
activities) in the same way as anyone else
can?
None Mild Moderate Severe Extreme or
cannot do
D6.2 How much of a problem did your relative
have because of barriers or hindrances in
the world around him or her?
None Mild Moderate Severe Extreme or
cannot do
D6.3 How much of a problem did your relative
have living with dignity because of the
attitudes and actions of others?
None Mild Moderate Severe Extreme or
cannot do
D6.4 How much time did your relative spend on
his or her health condition, or its
consequences?
None Mild Moderate Severe Extreme or
cannot do
D6.5 How much has your relative been
emotionally affected by his or her health
condition?
None Mild Moderate Severe Extreme or
cannot do
D6.6 How much has his or her health been a
drain on his or her financial resources or on
the financial resources of other relatives?
None Mild Moderate Severe Extreme or
cannot do
D6.7 How much of a problem did you or the rest
of his or her family have because of his or
her health problems?
None Mild Moderate Severe Extreme or
cannot do
D6.8 How much of a problem did your relative
have in doing things by himself or herself
for relaxation or pleasure?
None Mild Moderate Severe Extreme or
cannot do
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36
Proxy
This completes the questionnaire. Thank you for participating.
H1 Overall, in the past 30 days, how many days were these
difficulties present? Record number of days ____
H2 In the past 30 days, for how many days was your relative
totally unable to carry out his or her usual activities or work
because of any health condition?
Record number of days ____
H3 In the past 30 days, not counting the days that your relative
was totally unable, for how many days did your relative cut
back or reduce his or her usual activities or work because of
any health condition?
Record number of days ____
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12-item version, interviewer-administered
Introduction
This instrument was developed by the WHO Classification, Terminology and Standards team, within
the framework of the WHO/National Institutes of Health (NIH) Joint Project on Assessment and
Classification of Disability.
Before using this instrument, interviewers must be trained using the manual Measuring Health and
Disability: Manual for WHO Disability Assessment Schedule – WHODAS 2.0 (WHO, 2010), which
includes an interview guide and other training material.
The versions of the interview available are as follows:
? 36-item – Interviewer-administered
a
? 36-item – Self-administered
? 36-item – Proxy-administered
b
? 12-item – Interviewer-administered
c
? 12-item – Self-administered
? 12-item – Proxy-administered
? 12+24-item – Interviewer-administered
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For more details of the versions please refer to the WHODAS 2.0 manual Measuring Health and
Disability: Manual for WHO Disability Assessment Schedule – WHODAS 2.0 (WHO, 2010).
Permission to translate this instrument into any language should be obtained from WHO, and all
translations should be prepared according to the WHO translation guidelines, as detailed in the
accompanying manual.
For additional information, please visit www.who.int/whodas or contact:
Dr T Bedirhan Üstün
Classification, Terminology and Standards
Health Statistics and Informatics
World Health Organization (WHO)
1211 Geneva 27
Switzerland
Tel: + 41 22 791 3609
E-mail:ustunb@who.int
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12
Interview
This questionnaire contains the interviewer-administered, 12-item version of WHODAS 2.0.
Instructions to the interviewer are written in bold and italics – do not read these aloud
Text for the respondent to hear is written in
standard print in blue.
Read this text aloud
Section 1 Face sheet
Please continue to next page ...
Complete items F1–F5 before starting each interview
F1 Respondent identity number
F2 Interviewer identity number
F3 Assessment time point (1, 2, etc)
F4 Interview date
______ ______ ______
day month year
F5 Living situation at time of interview
(circle only one)
Independent in community 1
Assisted living 2
Hospitalized 3
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12
Interview
Section 2 Demographic and background information
This interview has been developed by the World Health Organization (WHO) to better understand the
difficulties people may have due to their health conditions. The information that you provide in this
interview is confidential and will be used only for research. The interview will take 5–10 minutes to
complete.
For respondents from the general population (not the clinical population) say:
Even if you are healthy and have no difficulties, I need to ask all of the questions so that the survey is
complete.
I will start with some background questions.
Please continue to next page...
A1 Record sex as observed Female 1
Male 2
A2 How old are you now? ______ years
A3 How many years in all did you spend studying in school,
college or university? ______ years
A4 What is your current marital status?
(Select the single best option)
Never married 1
Currently married 2
Separated 3
Divorced 4
Widowed 5
Cohabiting 6
A5 Which describes your main work status best?
(Select the single best option)
Paid work 1
Self-employed, such as
own your business or
farming
2
Non-paid work, such as
volunteer or charity
3
Student 4
Keeping house/
homemaker
5
Retired 6
Unemployed (health
reasons)
7
Unemployed (other
reasons)
8
Other
(specify)______________
_____________________
9
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12
Interview
Section 3 Preamble
Say to respondent:
The interview is about difficulties people have because of health conditions.
Hand flashcard #1 to respondent
By health condition I mean diseases or illnesses, or other health problems that may be short or long
lasting; injuries; mental or emotional problems; and problems with alcohol or drugs.
Remember to keep all of your health problems in mind as you answer the questions. When I ask you
about difficulties in doing an activity think about...
Point to flashcard #1
? Increased effort
? Discomfort or pain
Slowness
? Changes in the way you do the activity.
When answering, I’d like you to think back over the past 30 days. I would also like you to answer these
questions thinking about how much difficulty you have had, on average, over the past 30 days, while
doing the activity as you usually do it.
Hand flashcard #2 to respondent
Use this scale when responding.
Read scale aloud:
None, mild, moderate, severe, extreme or cannot do.
Ensure that the respondent can easily see flashcards #1 and #2 throughout the interview
Please continue to next page...
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12
Interview
Section 4 Core questions
Show flashcard #2
This concludes our interview. Thank you for participating.
In the past 30 days, how much difficulty did you
have in:
None Mild Moderate Severe Extreme or
cannot do
S1 Standing for long periods such as 30
minutes?
12 3 4 5
S2 Taking care of your household
responsibilities?
12 3 4 5
S3 Learning a new task, for example,
learning how to get to a new place?
12 3 4 5
S4 How much of a problem did you have
joining in community activities (for
example, festivities, religious or other
activities) in the same way as anyone
else can?
12 3 4 5
S5 How much have you been emotionally
affected by your health problems?
12 3 4 5
In the past 30 days, how much difficulty did you
have in:
None Mild Moderate Severe Extreme or
cannot do
S6 Concentrating on doing something for
ten minutes?
12 3 4 5
S7 Walking a long distance such as a
kilometre [or equivalent]?
12 3 4 5
S8 Washing your whole body? 12 3 4 5
S9 Getting dressed? 12 3 4 5
S10 Dealing with people you do not know? 12 3 4 5
S11 Maintaining a friendship? 12 3 4 5
S12 Your day-to-day work/school? 12 3 4 5
H1 Overall, in the past 30 days, how many days were these
difficulties present? Record number of days ____
H2 In the past 30 days, for how many days were you totally
unable to carry out your usual activities or work because of
any health condition?
Record number of days ____
H3 In the past 30 days, not counting the days that you were
totally unable, for how many days did you cut back or reduce
your usual activities or work because of any health condition?
Record number of days ____
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Flashcard 1
Health conditions:
? Diseases, illnesses or other health problems
? Injuries
? Mental or emotional problems
? Problems with alcohol
? Problems with drugs
Having difficulty with an activity means:
? Increased effort
? Discomfort or pain
? Slowness
? Changes in the way you do the activity
Think about the past 30 days only.
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12-item version, self-administered
This questionnaire asks about difficulties due to health conditions. Health conditions include diseases or
illnesses, other health problems that may be short or long lasting, injuries, mental or emotional problems,
and problems with alcohol or drugs.
Think back over the past 30 days and answer these questions, thinking about how much difficulty you
had doing the following activities. For each question, please circle only one response.
Please continue to next page...
��
In the past 30 days, how much difficulty did you have in:
S1 Standing for long periods such as 30
minutes?
None Mild Moderate Severe Extreme
or cannot
do
S2 Taking care of your household
responsibilities?
None Mild Moderate Severe Extreme
or cannot
do
S3 Learning a new task, for example,
learning how to get to a new place?
None Mild Moderate Severe Extreme
or cannot
do
S4 How much of a problem did you have
joining in community activities (for
example, festivities, religious or other
activities) in the same way as anyone
else can?
None Mild Moderate Severe Extreme
or cannot
do
S5 How much have you been emotionally
affected by your health problems?
None Mild Moderate Severe Extreme
or cannot
do
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12
Self
This completes the questionnaire. Thank you.
In the past 30 days, how much difficulty did you have in:
S6 Concentrating on doing something for
ten minutes?
None Mild Moderate Severe Extreme
or cannot
do
S7 Walking a long distance such as a
kilometre [or equivalent]?
None Mild Moderate Severe Extreme
or cannot
do
S8 Washing your whole body? None Mild Moderate Severe Extreme
or cannot
do
S9 Getting dressed? None Mild Moderate Severe Extreme
or cannot
do
S10 Dealing with people you do not know? None Mild Moderate Severe Extreme
or cannot
do
S11 Maintaining a friendship? None Mild Moderate Severe Extreme
or cannot
do
S12 Your day-to-day work? None Mild Moderate Severe Extreme
or cannot
do
H1 Overall, in the past 30 days, how many days were these
difficulties present? Record number of days ____
H2 In the past 30 days, for how many days were you totally unable
to carry out your usual activities or work because of any health
condition?
Record number of days ____
H3 In the past 30 days, not counting the days that you were totally
unable, for how many days did you cut back or reduce your
usual activities or work because of any health condition?
Record number of days ____
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12-item version, proxy-administered
This questionnaire asks about difficulties due to health conditions experienced by the person about
whom you are responding in your role as friend, relative or carer. Health conditions include diseases or
illnesses, other health problems that may be short or long lasting, injuries, mental or emotional problems,
and problems with alcohol or drugs.
Think back over the past 30 days and, to the best of your knowledge, answer these questions thinking
about how much difficulty your friend, relative or carer had while doing the following activities. (Note: the
questionnaire uses the term “relative” to mean “friend”, “relative” or “carer”.) For each question, please
circle only one response.
a
Questions H1–H3 appear at the end of the questionnaire.
Please continue to next page...
H4
a
I am the ___________ (choose one)
of this person.
1 = husband or wife 5 = other relative
2 = parent 6 = friend
3 = son or daughter 7 = professional carer
4 = brother or sister 8 = other (specify)
______________
In the past 30 days, how much difficulty did your relative have in:
S1 Standing for long periods such as 30
minutes?
None Mild Moderate Severe Extreme
or cannot
do
S2 Taking care of his or her household
responsibilities?
None Mild Moderate Severe Extreme
or cannot
do
S3 Learning a new task, for example,
learning how to get to a new place?
None Mild Moderate Severe Extreme
or cannot
do
S4 How much of a problem did your
relative have joining in community
activities (for example, festivities,
religious or other activities) in the same
way as anyone else can?
None Mild Moderate Severe Extreme
or cannot
do
S5 How much has your relative been
emotionally affected by his or her health
condition?
None Mild Moderate Severe Extreme
or cannot
do
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12
Proxy
This completes the questionnaire. Thank you.
In the past 30 days, how much difficulty did your relative have in:
S6 Concentrating on doing something for
ten minutes?
None Mild Moderate Severe Extreme or
cannot do
S7 Walking a long distance such as a
kilometre [or equivalent]?
None Mild Moderate Severe Extreme or
cannot do
S8 Washing his or her whole body? None Mild Moderate Severe Extreme or
cannot do
S9 Getting dressed? None Mild Moderate Severe Extreme or
cannot do
S10 Dealing with people he or she does not
know?
None Mild Moderate Severe Extreme or
cannot do
S11 Maintaining a friendship? None Mild Moderate Severe Extreme or
cannot do
S12 His or her day-to-day work? None Mild Moderate Severe Extreme or
cannot do
H1 Overall, in the past 30 days, how many days were these
difficulties present? Record number of days ____
H2 In the past 30 days, for how many days were you totally
unable to carry out your usual activities or work because of
any health condition?
Record number of days ____
H3 In the past 30 days, not counting the days that you were
totally unable, for how many days did you cut back or reduce
your usual activities or work because of any health condition?
Record number of days ____
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12+24-item version, interviewer-administered
Introduction
This instrument was developed by the WHO Classification, Terminology and Standards team, within
the framework of the WHO/National Institutes of Health (NIH) Joint Project on Assessment and
Classification of Disability.
Before using this instrument, interviewers must be trained using the manual Measuring Health and
Disability: Manual for WHO Disability Assessment Schedule – WHODAS 2.0 (WHO, 2010), which
includes an interview guide and other training material.
The versions of the interview available are as follows:
? 36-item – Interviewer-administered
a
? 36-item – Self-administered
? 36-item – Proxy-administered
b
? 12-item – Interviewer-administered
c
? 12-item – Self-administered
? 12-item – Proxy-administered
? 12+24-item – Interviewer-administered

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For more details of the versions please refer to the WHODAS 2.0 manual Measuring Health and
Disability: Manual for WHO Disability Assessment Schedule – WHODAS 2.0 (WHO, 2010).
Permission to translate this instrument into any language should be obtained from WHO, and all
translations should be prepared according to the WHO translation guidelines, as detailed in the
accompanying manual.
For additional information, please visit www.who.int/whodas or contact:
Dr T Bedirhan Üstün
Classification, Terminology and Standards
Health Statistics and Informatics
World Health Organization (WHO)
1211 Geneva 27
Switzerland
Tel: + 41 22 791 3609
E-mail:ustunb@who.int
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12+24
Interview
This questionnaire contains the interviewer-administered 12-item version of WHODAS 2.0.
Instructions to the interviewer are written in bold and italics – do not read these aloud
Text for the respondent to hear is written in
standard print in blue.
Read this text aloud
Section 1 Face sheet
Please continue to next page...
Complete items F1–F5 before starting each interview
F1 Respondent identity number
F2 Interviewer identity number
F3 Assessment time point (1, 2, etc)
F4 Interview date
______ ______ ______
day month year
F5 Living situation at time of interview
(circle only one)
Independent in community 1
Assisted living 2
Hospitalized 3
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12+24
Interview
Section 2 Demographic and background information
This interview has been developed by the World Health Organization (WHO) to better understand the
difficulties people may have due to their health conditions. The information that you provide in this
interview is confidential and will be used only for research. The interview will take 10–20 minutes to
complete.
For respondents from the general population (not the clinical population) say:
Even if you are healthy and have no difficulties, I need to ask all of the questions so that the survey is
complete.
I will start with some background questions.
Please continue to next page...
A1 Record sex as observed Female 1
Male 2
A2 How old are you now? ______ years
A3 How many years in all did you spend studying in school,
college or university?
______ years
A4 What is your current marital status?
(Select the single best option)
Never married 1
Currently married 2
Separated 3
Divorced 4
Widowed 5
Cohabiting 6
A5 Which describes your main work status best?
(Select the single best option)
Paid work 1
Self employed, such as
own your business or
farming
2
Non-paid work, such as
volunteer or charity
3
Student 4
Keeping house/
homemaker
5
Retired 6
Unemployed (health
reasons)
7
Un employed (other
reasons)
8
Other
(specify)______________
_____________________
9
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12+24
Interview
Section 3 Preamble
Say to respondent:
The interview is about difficulties people have because of health conditions.
Hand flashcard #1 to respondent
By health condition, I mean diseases or illnesses, or other health problems that may be short or long
lasting; injuries; mental or emotional problems; and problems with alcohol or drugs.
Remember to keep all of your health problems in mind as you answer the questions. When I ask you
about difficulties in doing an activity think about:
Point to flashcard #1 and explain that “difficulty with an activity” means:
? Increased effort
? Discomfort or pain
Slowness
? Changes in the way you do the activity.
Say to respondent:
When answering, I’d like you to think back over the past 30 days. I would also like you to answer these
questions thinking about how much difficulty you have had, on average, over the past 30 days, while
doing the activity as you usually do it.
Hand flashcard #2 to respondent and say:
Use this scale when responding.
Read the scale aloud:
None, mild, moderate, severe, extreme or cannot do.
Ensure that the respondent can easily see flashcards #1 and #2 throughout the interview
Please continue to next page...
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12+24
Interview
Section 4 Core questions
Show flashcard #2
If any of S1–S5 are endorsed (rated greater than none), continue with S6–S12. Otherwise, this is
the end of the interview, in which case say:
This concludes our interview. Thank you for participating.
Please continue to next page...
In the past 30 days, how much difficulty did you
have in:
None Mild Moderate Severe Extreme or
cannot do
S1 Standing for long periods such as 30
minutes?
12 3 4 5
S2 Taking care of your household
responsibilities?
12 3 4 5
S3 Learning a new task, for example,
learning how to get to a new place?
12 3 4 5
S4 Joining in community activities (for
example, festivities, religious or other
activities) in the same way as anyone
else can?
12 3 4 5
S5 How much have you been emotionally
affected by your health problems?
12 3 4 5
In the past 30 days, how much difficulty did you
have in:
None Mild Moderate Severe Extreme or
cannot do
S6 Concentrating on doing something for
ten minutes?
12 3 4 5
S7 Walking a long distance such as a
kilometre [or equivalent]?
12 3 4 5
S8 Washing your whole body? 12 3 4 5
S9 Getting dressed? 12 3 4 5
S10 Dealing with people you do not know? 12 3 4 5
S11 Maintaining a friendship? 12 3 4 5
S12 Your day-to-day work? 12 3 4 5
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12+24
Interview
Continue by administering the specified domains as follows:
Domain 1 Cognition
I am now going to ask some questions about understanding and communicating.
Show flashcards #1 and #2
Please continue to next page...
If question is endorsed (coded 2–5) Go to Domain number
S3 or S6

1 on page 6
S1 or S7

2 on page 7
S8 or S9

3 on page 7
S10 or S11

4 on page 7
S2 or S12

5 on pages 8–9
S4 or S5

6 on page 10
In the past 30 days, how much difficulty did you
have in:
None Mild Moderate Severe Extreme or
cannot do
D1.2 Remembering to do important things? 12 3 4 5
D1.3 Analysing and finding solutions to
problems in day-to-day life?
12 3 4 5
D1.5 Generally understanding what people
say?
12 3 4 5
D1.6 Starting and maintaining a
conversation?
12 3 4 5
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12+24
Interview
Domain 2 Mobility
I am now going to ask you about difficulties in getting around.
Show flashcards #1 and #2
Domain 3 Self-care
I am now going to ask you about difficulties in taking care of yourself.
Show flashcards #1 and #2
Domain 4 Getting along
I am now going to ask you about difficulties in getting along with people. Please remember that I am
asking only about difficulties that are due to health problems. By this I mean diseases or illnesses,
injuries, mental or emotional problems and problems with alcohol or drugs.
Show flashcards #1 and #2
Please continue to next page...
In the past 30 days, how much difficulty did you
have in:
None Mild Moderate Severe Extreme or
cannot do
D2.2 Standing up from sitting down? 12 3 4 5
D2.3 Moving around inside your home? 12 3 4 5
D2.4 Getting out of your home? 12 3 4 5
In the past 30 days, how much difficulty did you have in:
None Mild Moderate Severe Extreme or
cannot do
D3.3 Eating? 12 3 4 5
D3.4 Staying by yourself for a few days? 12 3 4 5
In the past 30 days, how much difficulty did you
have in:
None Mild Moderate Severe Extreme or
cannot do
D4.3 Getting along with people who are close
to you?
12 3 4 5
D4.4 Making new friends? 12 3 4 5
D4.5 Sexual activities? 12 3 4 5
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12+24
Interview
Domain 5 Life activities
5(1) Household activities
I am now going to ask you about activities involved in maintaining your household, and in caring for the
people who you live with or are close to. These activities include cooking, cleaning, shopping, caring for
others and caring for your belongings.
Show flashcards #1 and #2.
If any of the responses to D5.2–D5.4 are rated greater than none (coded as “1”), ask:
If respondent works (paid, non-paid, self-employed) or goes to school, complete questions
D5.6–D5.10 on the next page. Otherwise, skip to D6.2 on page 10.
Because of your health condition, in the past 30
days, how much difficulty did you have in:
None Mild Moderate Severe Extreme or
cannot do
D5.2 Doing your most important household
tasks well?
12 3 4 5
D5.3 Getting all the household work done
that you needed to do?
12 3 4 5
D5.4 Getting your household work done as
quickly as needed?
12 3 4 5
D5.01 In the past 30 days, on how many days did you reduce or
completely miss household work because of your health
condition?
Record number of days ____
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12+24
Interview
5(2) Work or school activities
Now I will ask some questions about your work or school activities.
Show flashcards #1 and #2
If any of D5.6–D5.10 are rated greater than none (coded as “1”), ask:
Please continue to next page...
Because of your health condition, in the past 30
days how much difficulty did you have in:
None Mild Moderate Severe Extreme or
cannot do
D5.6 Doing your most important work/school
tasks well?
12 3 4 5
D5.7 Getting all the work done that you need
to do?
12 3 4 5
D5.8 Getting your work done as quickly as
needed?
12 3 4 5
D5.9 Have you had to work at a lower level because of a health condition? No 1
Yes 2
D5.10 Did you earn less money as the result of a health condition? No 1
Yes 2
D5.02 In the past 30 days, on how many days did you
miss work for half a day or more because of your
health condition?
Record number of days ____
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12+24
Interview
Domain 6 Participation
Now, I am going to ask you about your participation in society and the impact of your health problems
on you and your family. Some of these questions may involve problems that go beyond the past 30
days; however, in answering, please focus on the past 30 days. Again, remember to answer these
questions while thinking about your health problems: physical, mental or emotional, alcohol or drug
related.
Show flashcards #1 and #2
In the past 30 days: None Mild Moderate Severe Extreme or
cannot do
D6.2 How much of a problem did you have
because of barriers or hindrances in the
world around you?
12 3 4 5
D6.3 How much of a problem did you have
living with dignity because of the
attitudes and actions of others?
12 3 4 5
D6.4 How much time did you spend on your
health condition, or its consequences?
12 3 4 5
D6.6 How much has your health been a drain
on the financial resources of you or
your family?
12 3 4 5
D6.7 How much of a problem did your family
have because of your health problems?
12 3 4 5
D6.8 How much of a problem did you have in
doing things by yourself for relaxation or
pleasure?
12 3 4 5
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12+24
Interview
This concludes our interview. Thank you for participating.
H1 Overall, in the past 30 days, how many days were these
difficulties present? Record number of days ____
H2 In the past 30 days, for how many days were you totally
unable to carry out your usual activities or work because of
any health condition?
Record number of days ____
H3 In the past 30 days, not counting the days that you were
totally unable, for how many days did you cut back or reduce
your usual activities or work because of any health condition?
Record number of days ____
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Flashcard 1
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Health conditions:
? Diseases, illnesses or other health problems
? Injuries
? Mental or emotional problems
? Problems with alcohol
? Problems with drugs
Having difficulty with an activity means:
? Increased effort
? Discomfort or pain
? Slowness
? Changes in the way you do the activity
Think about the past 30 days only.
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