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BPI User Guide

BPI User Guide - Clinical Hub, UW Health Clinical Tool Search, UW Health Clinical Tool Search, Questionnaires, Related





The Brief Pain Inventory
User Guide




































Charles S. Cleeland, PhD





ii
Copyright and Terms of Use
The Brief Pain Inventory (BPI) copyright is held by Dr. Charles S. Cleeland (1991).
The copyright applies to the BPI and all its derivatives in any language.
The BPI may not be used or reproduced without permission from Charles S.
Cleeland, PhD, or his designee. Fees for use may apply.
The BPI may not be modified or translated into another language without the
express written consent of the copyright holder. Failure to comply may result in legal
action. Permission to alter or translate the instrument may be obtained by contacting Dr.
Charles S. Cleeland either by e-mail at symptomresearch@mdanderson.org or by mail
at:
Charles S. Cleeland, PhD
Professor and Chair, Department of Symptom Research
The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center
1515 Holcombe Boulevard, Unit 1450
Houston, Texas 77030

Visit our web site (www.mdanderson.org > Education and Research >
Departments, Programs and Labs > Departments and Divisions > Symptom Research >
Symptom Assessment Tools) for more information.






© 2009Charles S. Cleeland
All rights reserved


ii

Table of Contents
Chapter 1. Development of the Brief Pain Inventory ............................................................................ 1
Background............................................................................................................................................... 1
Developing a Measurement Model and Items................................................................................... 2
Test Construction Standards.............................................................................................................. 2
Measurement Conceptualization: Multiple Dimensions of Pain ................................................. 3
Early Version: The Wisconsin Brief Pain Questionnaire ........................................................................ 4
The Brief Pain Inventory ........................................................................................................................... 5
Chapter 2. Scoring the Brief Pain Inventory as an Outcome Measure ............................................... 7
How to Score the BPI: Pain Severity....................................................................................................... 7
How to Score the BPI: Pain Interference............................................................................................... 7
How to Score the BPI: Other Items......................................................................................................... 8
Chapter 3. Psychometric Properties of the Brief Pain Inventory .......................................................... 9
Dimensions of the BPI ............................................................................................................................... 9
Two-Factor Structure .......................................................................................................................... 9
Multidimensional Scaling of Interference...................................................................................... 10
Test-Retest Reliability .............................................................................................................................. 10
Test-Retest Reliability and Alternate-Forms Reliability: the Hindi Translation............................ 11
Chapter 4. The BPI in the Literature.......................................................................................................12
Cancer Bone Pain.................................................................................................................................. 13
Cancer Epidemiology ........................................................................................................................... 17
Cancer Pain ............................................................................................................................................ 18
Depressive Disorders .............................................................................................................................. 27
Fabry Disease.......................................................................................................................................... 28
Fibromyalgia ........................................................................................................................................... 29
HIV/AIDS................................................................................................................................................... 30
Minority Studies ....................................................................................................................................... 31
Neuromuscular Pain............................................................................................................................... 32
Neuropathic Pain ................................................................................................................................... 35
Osteoarthritis and Other Joint Diseases .............................................................................................. 38
Psychosocial Studies .............................................................................................................................. 40
Surgical and Procedural Pain............................................................................................................... 41
Validation Studies................................................................................................................................... 44
Language Translations........................................................................................................................... 52
Methods Papers...................................................................................................................................... 53
Literature Cited....................................................................................................................................... 61





1
Chapter 1
Development of the Brief Pain Inventory
The Brief Pain Inventory (BPI) has become one of the most widely used
measurement tools for assessing clinical pain. The BPI allows patients to rate
the severity of their pain and the degree to which their pain interferes with
common dimensions of feeling and function. Initially developed to assess pain
related to cancer, the BPI has been shown to be an appropriate measure for
pain caused by a wide range of clinical conditions. The BPI has been used in
hundreds of studies. In some ways, the BPI is a “legacy” instrument—a self-
report measure that has, over time, become a standard for the assessment of
pain and its impact.
Background
In the late 1970s, it became increasingly evident that patients with cancer,
especially the later stages of the disease, experienced incapacitating pain that
was often poorly controlled. A constellation of events—the publishing of
opinion pieces by prominent persons with cancer pain, the increasing
advocacy of pain professionals and organizations for better cancer pain
management, a growing awareness of the problem by national and
international policy groups, and the simple recognition that pain often could be
controlled—created the climate for a sustained effort to improve pain
management for those with cancer.
A first step in this effort was to document the extent of poor pain
management. The National Cancer Institute (NCI) and the Cancer Unit of the
World Health Organization (WHO) wanted measurement instruments that
would better capture the severity and impact of cancer pain and measure
improvement in pain after changes in analgesic practice or implementation of
new pain treatments. These instruments also needed to function well in large-
scale national and international studies of the epidemiology of cancer pain.

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With grant support from both the NCI and the WHO, the Pain Research Group at
the University of Wisconsin Medical School-Madison, under the direction of Charles S.
Cleeland, PhD, undertook a program to test and develop self-report measures of cancer
pain and to apply them to studies of pain and its treatment in the United States and
internationally. The Pain Research Group, now the Department of Symptom Research
at The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, was also the WHO
Collaborating Center for Symptom Research in Cancer.
Developing a Measurement Model and Items
Several existing pain measures (such as the McGill Pain Questionnaire; Melzack, 1975)
were field-tested in interviews with cancer patients who had pain (N=50). Almost all of
these measures had been designed to assess pain in patients with nonmalignant
disease. The patients reported that the measures were too complex and too long,
making them excessively burdensome for patients with high levels of pain. Patients also
noted that the existing instruments included items not relevant to cancer patients and
sometimes required responses that patients felt were ambiguous (Cleeland, 1984).
Patients were also asked what questions they felt were the most important for
communicating their experience of pain. The results of this study made clear that a new
measurement instrument was needed.
The Pain Research Group planned a program to develop such an instrument.
The aims were to have a scale that: (a) would take only a short time to complete; (b)
would be easy for patients to understand; (c) could be self-administered for literate
patients, or be completed by interview for illiterate or low-literacy patients; (d) would be
easily translated for non-English-speaking patients; and (e) would capture not only pain
severity, but also the perception of how pain interfered with daily life.
Test Construction Standards
As a guide to scale construction, we used then-current psychometric standards found in
the Standards for Educational and Psychological Tests published by the American
Psychological Association, American Educational Research Association, and the
National Council on Measurement in Education (1974). These standards included
common elements of test validity (content, criterion, and construct) and reliability

3
(internal consistency and test-retest). These standards had not been systematically
applied in the development of the existing pain report scales.
Measurement Conceptualization: Multiple Dimensions of Pain
That pain is multidimensional was made clear during our patient interviews: patients
reported that an adequate representation of pain required more than one simple
measure of pain intensity. Melzack and Casey (1968) suggested that, based on the
underlying neurophysiological mechanisms of pain, pain assessment should include
three dimensions: sensory-discriminative, motivational-affective, and cognitive-
evaluative. This approach to self-report measurement relied on three distinct patterns of
responses to the words that patients used to describe their pain. However, the patients
we interviewed had difficulty discriminating between the motivational-affective and
cognitive-evaluative dimensions (Cleeland, 1989; Cleeland, 1990).
More commonly, researchers have found that two dimensions of pain self-report
account for most of the variability in the way patients describe pain. Beecher (1959)
called these dimensions “pain” and “reaction to pain”; Clark and Yang (1983) called
them “sensory-discriminative” and “attitudinal.” Following Beecher, we called these
dimensions “sensory” and “reactive” (Cleeland, 1989).
Accordingly, our new questionnaire was developed to include items that reported
the “sensory” dimension of pain (intensity, or severity) and the “reactive” dimension of
pain (interference with daily function). We constructed four items to capture the
variability of pain over time: pain at its “worst,” “least,” “average,” and “now” (current
pain). On the basis of patient interviews from additional field testing, we chose seven
items that measured how much pain interfered with various daily activities, including
general activity, walking, work, mood, enjoyment of life, relations with others, and sleep.
Two subdimensions of pain interference were proposed: an affective subdimension
(REM: relations with others, enjoyment of life, and mood) and an activity subdimension
(WAW: walking, general activity, and work). The appropriate categorization of sleep
within these two subdimensions was unclear.
A graphic representation of the conceptual framework for our measurement
model is shown below. The model conforms to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration’s

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Draft Guidance for Industry, Patient-reported Outcome Measures: Use in Medical
Product Development to Support Labeling Claims (Food and Drug Administration,
2006).

Early Version: The Wisconsin Brief Pain Questionnaire
The first version of our pain measure was the Wisconsin Brief Pain Questionnaire (BPQ;
Daut & Cleeland, 1982; Daut, Cleeland, & Flanery, 1983). In the initial phase of scale
development, 667 patients with cancer and 32 patients with rheumatoid arthritis were
administered a three-page questionnaire and interviewed about the basic parameters of
their pain (Daut et al., 1982). Patients who had experienced pain in the last month were
asked to rate their pain intensity at its “worst,” “average,” and “now” and to rate the
extent to which pain had interfered with activity and enjoyment of life. Patients were also
asked to mark their pain location(s) on front/back body diagrams and to describe their
perception of the cause of pain, the types of pain treatment they were receiving, and the
amount of relief provided by their treatment. Patients were also asked to describe the
quality of their pain by choosing words among a list of verbal descriptors derived from
the McGill Pain Questionnaire (Melzack, 1975).
The design of the four-page BPQ was based on this initial questionnaire. In the
BPQ, a 0–10 numerical rating scale was used to measure three pain severity items:

REM
WAW
Interference
Pain Severity
Working
General Activity
Walking
Mood
Enjoyment of Life
Relations with Others
Pain Now
Average Pain
Least Pain
Worst Pain
Patient Pain Experience
Sleep?
CONSTRUCTS ITEMS

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“worst” in the past month, “average,” and “now,” where 0=no pain and 10=pain as bad
as you can imagine. The interference items were measured using a five-option verbal
descriptor scale, with ratings of 0=not at all, 1=a little bit, 2=moderately, 3=quite a bit,
and 4=extremely. The recall period for both severity and interference scales was “in the
last week.” The BPQ also retained the body diagram from the initial questionnaire, along
with word descriptors of pain quality and questions about types and effectiveness of
pain treatment, the patient’s perception of the cause of pain, and certain demographic
information.
A second study (Daut et al., 1983) investigated the psychometric properties of
the BPQ. This set of analyses was based on BPQ data obtained from more than 1200
patients with cancer at The University of Wisconsin Cancer Center. To determine test-
retest characteristics of the BPQ, subsamples of patients completed the BPQ on two or
more occasions. For comparison with other disease sites, a sample of patients with pain
from rheumatoid arthritis was also surveyed.
Most of the patients were able to complete the BPQ by themselves with little or
no instruction; others were interviewed to complete the questionnaire. A subset 25
patients completed both an interview-administered and self-administered version of the
survey in counterbalanced order. We found little difference in ratings due to mode of
administration. As expected, test-retest reliability varied by item. Short (days) test-retest
reliability was 0.93 for “worst pain,” but only 0.59 for “pain now.” Preliminary exploration
found that patient-reported pain severity and interference were directly associated with
the use of opioid analgesics and the severity of disease.
The Brief Pain Inventory
The next iteration of our pain measure was the long form of the Brief Pain Inventory
(BPI; Cleeland, 1989; Cleeland, 1990; Cleeland, 1991; Cleeland & Ryan, 1994). In this
new instrument, we added the item “least pain” to the severity items and dropped the
categorical rating scale for the interference items, in response to patient preference.
The interference items were now presented with 0–10 scales, with 0=no interference
and 10=interferes completely. The initial version of the BPI used a recall period of one
week for both pain severity and pain interference ratings, included questions about

6
medication use, and asked the patient to check potential pain quality descriptors that
may describe their pain. The BPI long form also asked questions about the percentage
and duration of pain relief and nonmedical methods used to relieve pain.
This version of the BPI proved to be too lengthy for repeated use in clinical monitoring
or as a repeated measure in research. As a result, we developed a shorter version of
the BPI. This version of the BPI retained the front and back body diagrams, the four
pain severity items and seven pain interference items rated on 0–10 scales, and the
question about percentage of pain relief by analgesics. The most important difference
between the longer and shorter versions of the BPI is that the latter uses a 24-hour
recall period.
Whereas the BPI long form is still used as a baseline measure in clinical trials,
the shorter version has become the standard for use in clinical and research
applications. The short form is typically what is referred to when the BPI is cited in
research, and it is the version we describe below. Most psychometric evaluations of the
BPI have been performed on the short form.



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Chapter 2
Scoring the Brief Pain Inventory as an Outcome Measure
A recent consensus panel recommended that the two domains measured by
the BPI—pain intensity (severity) and the impact of pain on functioning
(interference)—be included as outcomes in all chronic-pain clinical trials
(IMMPACT, Turk et al., 2003). The IMMPACT panel (www.immpact.org)
specifically identified the interference items of the BPI, rated on a 0–10
scale, as one of the two scales recommended for assessment of pain-related
functional impairment (Dworkin et al., 2005).
How to Score the BPI: Pain Severity
The BPI assesses pain at its “worst,” “least,” “average,” and “now” (current
pain). In clinical trials, the items “worst” and “average” have each been used
singly to represent pain severity. A composite of the four pain items (a mean
severity score) is sometimes presented as supplemental information. The use
of these single items is supported by the IMMPACT recommendations for
assessing pain in clinical trials (Dworkin et al., 2005; Turk et al., 2006;
Dworkin et al., 2008) and by the FDA Draft Guidance for Industry: Patient-
Reported Outcome Measures (Food and Drug Administration, 2006).
However, the BPI’s developers recommend that all four severity items be
used, because the models for validation of the BPI included all four items.
How to Score the BPI: Pain Interference
The BPI measures how much pain has interfered with seven daily activities,
including general activity, walking, work, mood, enjoyment of life, relations
with others, and sleep. BPI pain interference is typically scored as the mean of
the seven interference items. This mean can be used if more than 50%, or
four of seven, of the total items have been completed on a given
administration.

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We are exploring the utility of scoring the activity and affective dimensions
described above (WAW and REM, see diagram [link]) as arithmetic means of these sets
of items.
How to Score the BPI: Other Items
The item, “Throughout our lives, most of us have had pain from time to time (such as
minor headaches, sprains, and toothaches). Have you had pain other than these
everyday kinds of pain today?” is a YES/NO preliminary screening question at the
beginning of the BPI. This item is optional and we have not evaluated its psychometric
properties. The BPI also asks the patient to indicate the percentage of relief provided by
pain treatments or medications, but we have not found this item to be very useful in our
studies.



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Chapter 3
Psychometric Properties of the Brief Pain Inventory
Dimensions of the BPI
Two-Factor Structure
Several approaches have explored the underlying dimensions of the BPI. As
described above, the BPI was designed to capture two dimensions of pain:
severity and interference. The BPI was also intended to capture two
components of interference—activity and affect (emotions).
One of the first studies of the dimensions of the BPI compared the
factor structure of four language versions of the BPI used to assess cancer
pain in the United States, Mexico, the Philippines, and Vietnam (Cleeland,
1990). Factor analysis was applied to the matrix of intercorrelations of the item
scores of each sample. For each language version, the same two factors
emerged with an eigenvalue greater than 1: the first factor comprised the pain
interference items and the second factor comprised the pain severity items.
The similarity of the factor loading among the language versions indicated that
patients experiencing cancer and pain, living in various countries and
speaking various languages, responded to the items in a similar fashion.
This two-factor structure was confirmed in a large national study
conducted in the U.S. by the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group.
Outpatients (N= 1261) with recurrent or metastatic cancer from 80 centers
were enrolled in the study (Cleeland et al., 1994). Factor analysis verified the
two separate factors, pain severity and interference, found in the previous
study. Internal stability (Cronbach alpha) was also examined in this study.
Alphas showed good internal consistency, ranging from 0.80 to 0.87 for the
four pain severity items and from 0.89 to 0.92 for the seven interference items.
Subsequent data from studies of cancer patients in many countries and many
languages have demonstrated high internal consistency and the robust nature
of these two dimensions of the BPI.

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Multidimensional Scaling of Interference
We have also used multidimensional scaling (MDS) to examine the dimensions of the
BPI. We used a four-country sample with BPI responses from patients with cancer and
pain (Cleeland et al., 1996). In this MDS analysis, we focused on only the interference
items of the survey. Our purpose was to explore potential linguistic and cultural
differences in the report of pain interference.
As we had hypothesized, two dimensions of the interference scale were
demonstrated. The first dimension consisted of patients’ ratings of pain’s interference
with enjoyment of life, mood, and relations with others (REM, the affective cluster of
interference items). A second dimension of interference ratings consisted of patients’
ratings of pain’s interference with walking, general activity, work, and sleep (WAW, the
activity cluster of interference items). Subsequent studies of additional language
versions (Hindi in Saxena, Mendoza, & Cleeland, 1999; Norwegian in Klepstad et al.,
2002) have shown a similar decomposition of the interference items into the affective
(REM) and activity (WAW) interference subscales.
In summary, there is strong psychometric support for the independent
measurement of pain severity and interference in the BPI. In addition, there is
provisional evidence that the interference items independently measure activity and
affective interference.
Test-Retest Reliability
Values from any measure should not differ significantly between assessments. The
underlying concept of a measure should not change between assessments. This
psychometric concept applies to patient-report instruments and is examined by test-
retest reliability.
The test-retest reliability of the BPI has been studied in cancer patients and other
patients with pain. Initial short-term (1 day to 1 week) reliability for ratings of pain “worst”
(0.93) and “usual” or “average” pain (0.78) in patients with cancer was high, which
signals acceptable reliability. As expected, test-retest reliability for pain “now” severity
ratings were lower (0.59), because pain intensity often changes over time (Daut et al.,
1983).

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Several more recent studies have found similar test-retest coefficients for these items.
For example, Radbruch et al. (1999) examined test-retest coefficients in 109 outpatients
in a German pain clinic, with the retest occurring 30 to 60 minutes after the first
administration. Test-retest values were 0.98 for pain severity and 0.97 for pain
interference. The individual item with the lowest value, 0.78, was pain “least.”
Reliabilities have also been examined with daily administration of the BPI. In
patients with osteoarthritis (Mendoza et al., 2006), test-retest reliabilities of pain severity
(pain “worst,” “average,” and “current”) between consecutive daily administration for a
week showed correlations ranging from 0.83 to 0.88. The test-retest reliabilities for pain
interference ranged from 0.83 to 0.93, beginning at day 1 for the week.
In another study of patients who underwent coronary artery bypass graft, the
test-retest reliability coefficients for pain severity ranged from 0.72 to 0.95 during
assessment periods where postsurgical pain declined in an expected direction
(Mendoza et al., 2004). Similarly, the test-retest reliability coefficients for pain
interference ranged from 0.81 to 0.93 during the same assessment period.
Test-Retest Reliability and Alternate-Forms Reliability: the Hindi Translation
Finally, one study combined an examination of both test-retest reliability and alternate-
forms reliability (Saxena et al., 1999). In this study, 100 patients with cancer who spoke
both English and Hindi completed both language versions of the BPI on different days in
a counterbalanced design. In addition to reporting reliability based on internal
consistency, the study design allowed calculation of the alternate-forms reliability of the
BPI. Treating the Hindi and English versions of the BPI as alternate test forms, the
alternate-form reliabilities of the interference and severity subscales were 0.88 and
0.95, respectively. These reliabilities demonstrated that the Hindi and English versions
could be substituted for one another in assessing the severity of pain and its impact in
bilingual patients. These data also provided support for the high test-retest reliability of
the BPI.
In summary, the BPI is reliable to the extent that high test-retest reliability and
alternate-form reliability is demonstrated when pain is stable or when pain changes in a
predictable way.


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Chapter 4
The BPI in the Literature
The Brief Pain Inventory has been used in more than 400 studies worldwide.
Here we present BPI references categorized by type of study.

Cancer Bone Pain............................................................................................ 13
Cancer Epidemiology....................................................................................... 17
Cancer Pain ..................................................................................................... 18
Depressive Disorders....................................................................................... 27
Fabry Disease.................................................................................................. 28
Fibromyalgia .................................................................................................... 29
HIV/AIDS ......................................................................................................... 30
Minority Studies ............................................................................................... 31
Neuromuscular Pain ........................................................................................ 31
Neuropathic Pain ............................................................................................. 35
Osteoarthritis and Other Joint Diseases .......................................................... 37
Psychosocial Studies ....................................................................................... 40
Surgical and Procedural Pain .......................................................................... 41
Validation Studies ............................................................................................ 44
Language Translations .................................................................................... 52
Methods Papers............................................................................................... 53



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Cancer Bone Pain
1. Ahles TA, Herndon JE, Small EJ, Vogelzang NJ, Kornblith AB, Ratain MJ, Stadler
W, Palchak D, Marshall ME, Wilding G, Petrylak D, Holland JC. Quality of life
impact of three different doses of suramin in patients with metastatic hormone-
refractory prostate carcinoma: results of Intergroup O159/Cancer and Leukemia
Group B 9480. Cancer 101(10): 2202-2208, 11/2004.
2. Borden LS, Jr., Clark PE, Lovato J, Hall MC, Stindt D, Harmon M, Mohler M, Torti
FM. Vinorelbine, doxorubicin, and prednisone in androgen-independent prostate
cancer. Cancer 107(5): 1093-1100, 9/2006.
3. Callstrom MR, Charboneau JW, Goetz MP, Rubin J, Wong GY, Sloan JA, Novotny
PJ, Lewis BD, Welch TJ, Farrell MA, Maus TP, Lee RA, Reading CC, Petersen IA,
Pickett DD. Painful metastases involving bone: feasibility of percutaneous CT- and
US-guided radio-frequency ablation. Radiology 224(1): 87-97, 7/2002.
4. Callstrom MR, Atwell TD, Charboneau JW, Farrell MA, Goetz MP, Rubin J, Sloan
JA, Novotny PJ, Welch TJ, Maus TP, Wong GY, Brown KJ. Painful metastases
involving bone: percutaneous image-guided cryoablation--prospective trial interim
analysis. Radiology 241(2): 572-580, 11/2006.
5. Carrafiello G, Lagana D, Ianniello A, Nicotera P, Fontana F, Dizonno M, Cuffari S,
Fugazzola C. Radiofrequency thermal ablation for pain control in patients with
single painful bone metastasis from hepatocellular carcinoma. Eur J Radiol: e-pub
ahead of print, 5/2008.
6. Castel LD, Saville BR, Depuy V, Godley PA, Hartmann KE, Abernethy AP. Racial
differences in pain during 1 year among women with metastatic breast cancer: a
hazards analysis of interval-censored data. Cancer 112(1): 162-170, 1/2008.
7. Chow E, Loblaw A, Harris K, Doyle M, Goh P, Chiu H, Panzarella T, Tsao M,
Barnes EA, Sinclair E, Farhadian M, Danjoux C. Dexamethasone for the
prophylaxis of radiation-induced pain flare after palliative radiotherapy for bone
metastases-a pilot study. Support Care Cancer 15(6): 643-647, 6/2007.
8. Cleeland CS. The measurement of pain from metastatic bone disease: capturing
the patient's experience. Clin Cancer Res 12(20 Pt 2): 6236s-6242s, 10/2006.

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9. Colella J, Scrofine S, Galli B, Knorr-Mulder C, Gejerman G, Scheuch J, Lanteri V,
Siegel A, Levey S, Watson R, Block M, Sawczuk I. Prostate HDR radiation therapy:
a comparative study evaluating the effectiveness of pain management with
peripheral PCA vs. PCEA. Urol Nurs 26(1): 57-61, 2/2006.
10. Depuy V, Anstrom KJ, Castel LD, Schulman KA, Weinfurt KP, Saad F. Effects of
skeletal morbidities on longitudinal patient-reported outcomes and survival in
patients with metastatic prostate cancer. Support Care Cancer 15(7): 869-876,
7/2007.
11. Goetz MP, Callstrom MR, Charboneau JW, Farrell MA, Maus TP, Welch TJ, Wong
GY, Sloan JA, Novotny PJ, Petersen IA, Beres RA, Regge D, Capanna R, Saker
MB, Gronemeyer DH, Gevargez A, Ahrar K, Choti MA, de Baere TJ, Rubin J.
Percutaneous image-guided radiofrequency ablation of painful metastases
involving bone: a multicenter study. J Clin Oncol 22(2): 300-306, 1/2004.
12. Hadi S, Fan G, Hird AE, Kirou-Mauro A, Filipczak LA, Chow E. Symptom clusters in
patients with cancer with metastatic bone pain. J Palliat Med 11(4): 591-600,
5/2008.
13. Halabi S, Vogelzang NJ, Kornblith AB, Ou SS, Kantoff PW, Dawson NA, Small EJ.
Pain predicts overall survival in men with metastatic castration-refractory prostate
cancer. J Clin Oncol 26(15): 2544-2549, 5/2008.
14. Harris K, Pugash R, David E, Yee A, Sinclair E, Myers J, Chow E. Percutaneous
cementoplasty of lytic metastasis in left acetabulum. Curr Oncol 14(1): 4-8, 2/2007.
15. Harris K, Li K, Flynn C, Chow E. Worst, average or current pain in the brief pain
inventory: Which should be used to calculate the response to palliative radiotherapy
in patients with bone metastases? Clinical Oncology 19(7): 523-527, 9/2007.
16. Hartsell WF, Scott CB, Bruner DW, Scarantino CW, Ivker RA, Roach M, III, Suh JH,
Demas WF, Movsas B, Petersen IA, Konski AA, Cleeland CS, Janjan NA, DeSilvio
M. Randomized trial of short- versus long-course radiotherapy for palliation of
painful bone metastases. J Natl Cancer Inst 97(11): 798-804, 6/2005.

15
17. Hong SJ, Cho KS, Choi HY, Ahn H, Kim CS, Chung BH. A prospective, multicenter,
open-label trial of zoledronic acid in patients with hormone refractory prostate
cancer. Yonsei Medical Journal 48(6): 1001-1008, 12/2007.
18. Janjan NA, Payne R, Gillis T, Podoloff D, Libshitz HI, Lenzi R, Theriault R, Martin
C, Yasko A. Presenting symptoms in patients referred to a multidisciplinary clinic for
bone metastases. J Pain Symptom Manage 16(3): 171-178, 9/1998.
19. Kornblith AB, Herndon JE, Zuckerman E, Godley PA, Savarese D, Vogelzang NJ.
The impact of docetaxel, estramustine, and low dose hydrocortisone on the quality
of life of men with hormone refractory prostate cancer and their partners: a
feasibility study. Ann Oncol 12(5): 633-641, 5/2001.
20. Loblaw A, Chow E, Panzarella T, Tsao M, Barnes EA, Sinclair E, Farhadian M,
Danjoux C. Dexamethasone for the prophylaxis of radiation-induced pain flare
following palliative radiotherapy for bone metastases. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys
66(3 Supplement 1): S525, 11/2006.
21. Lothman H, Heatley S, Lipton A. Zoledronic acid (zol) provides long-term palliation
of bone pain in breast cancer (bc) patients (pts) with bone metastases. Eur J Oncol
Nurs 10(3): 225-226, 7/2006.
22. Mystakidou K, Katsouda E, Parpa E, Kouskouni E, Chondros C, Tsiatas ML,
Galanos A, Vlahos L. A prospective randomized controlled clinical trial of zoledronic
acid for bone metastases. Am J Hosp Palliat Care 23(1): 41-50, 1/2006.
23. Nishio M, Sano M, Tamaki Y, Fujii H, Shima Y, Fujimoto H, Kubo A, Koizumi K,
Tokuda Y, Adachi S, Sumiyoshi Y, Hasegawa T, Eguchi K. [A multicenter study to
determine the efficacy and safety of strontium (89Sr) chloride for palliation of painful
bony metastases in cancer patients]. Nippon Igaku Hoshasen Gakkai Zasshi 65(4):
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9. Wasan AD, Butler SF, Budman SH, Benoit C, Fernandez K, Jamison RN.
Psychiatric History and Psychologic Adjustment as Risk Factors for Aberrant Drug-
related Behavior Among Patients With Chronic Pain. Clin J Pain 23(4): 307-315,
5/2007.
10. Williams LS, Jones WJ, Shen J, Robinson RL, Kroenke K. Outcomes of newly
referred neurology outpatients with depression and pain. Neurology 63(4): 674-677,
8/2004.
Fabry Disease
1. Beck M, Ricci R, Widmer U, Dehout F, de Lorenzo AG, Kampmann C, Linhart A,
Sunder-Plassmann G, Houge G, Ramaswami U, Gal A, Mehta A. Fabry disease:
overall effects of agalsidase alfa treatment. Eur J Clin Invest 34(12): 838-844,
12/2004.
2. Cleeland CS. Pain assessment: the advantages of using pain scales in lysosomal
storage diseases. Acta Paediatr Suppl 91(439): 43-47, 2002.
3. Deegan PB, Baehner AF, Barba Romero MA, Hughes DA, Kampmann C, Beck M.
Natural history of Fabry disease in females in the Fabry Outcome Survey. J Med
Genet 43(4): 347-352, 4/2006.
4. Hoffmann B, Garcia de LA, Mehta A, Beck M, Widmer U, Ricci R. Effects of
enzyme replacement therapy on pain and health related quality of life in patients
with Fabry disease: data from FOS (Fabry Outcome Survey). J Med Genet 42(3):
247-252, 3/2005.
5. Ramaswami U, Wendt S, Pintos-Morell G, Parini R, Whybra C, Leon Leal JA,
Santus F, Beck M. Enzyme replacement therapy with agalsidase alfa in children
with Fabry disease. Acta Paediatr 96(1): 122-127, 1/2007.

29
6. Ries M, Mengel E, Kutschke G, Kim KS, Birklein F, Krummenauer F, Beck M. Use
of gabapentin to reduce chronic neuropathic pain in Fabry disease. J Inherit Metab
Dis 26(4): 413-414, 2003.
7. Schiffmann R, Kopp JB, Austin HA, III, Sabnis S, Moore DF, Weibel T, Balow JE,
Brady RO. Enzyme replacement therapy in Fabry disease: a randomized controlled
trial. JAMA 285(21): 2743-2749, 6/2001.
Fibromyalgia
1. Armstrong DG, Chappell AS, Le TK, Kajdasz DK, Backonja M, D'Souza DN,
Russell JM. Duloxetine for the management of diabetic peripheral neuropathic pain:
evaluation of functional outcomes. Pain Med 8(5): 410-418, 7/2007.
2. Arnold LM, Lu Y, Crofford LJ, Wohlreich M, Detke MJ, Iyengar S, Goldstein DJ. A
double-blind, multicenter trial comparing duloxetine with placebo in the treatment of
fibromyalgia patients with or without major depressive disorder. Arthritis Rheum
50(9): 2974-2984, 9/2004.
3. Arnold LM, Rosen A, Pritchett YL, D'Souza DN, Goldstein DJ, Iyengar S, Wernicke
JF. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of duloxetine in the
treatment of women with fibromyalgia with or without major depressive disorder.
Pain 119(1-3): 5-15, 12/2005.
4. Arnold LM, Pritchett YL, D'Souza DN, Kajdasz DK, Iyengar S, Wernicke JF.
Duloxetine for the treatment of fibromyalgia in women: pooled results from two
randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trials. J Womens Health (Larchmt ) 16(8):
1145-1156, 10/2007.
5. Arnold LM, Goldenberg DL, Stanford SB, Lalonde JK, Sandhu HS, Keck PE, Welge
JA, Bishop F, Stanford KE, Hess EV, Hudson JI. Gabapentin in the treatment of
fibromyalgia - A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial.
Arthritis and Rheumatism 56(4): 1336-1344, 4/2007.
6. Dungey J, Arnold L, Pritchett Y, Robinson M, D'Souza D, Wernicke J. PR_186:
Duloxetine in the Treatment of Fibromyalgia in Women: Results From 2 Clinical
Trials. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 87(11): e36, 11/2006.

30
7. Russell IJ, Mease PJ, Smith TR, Kajdasz DK, Wohlreich MM, Detke MJ, Walker DJ,
Chappell AS, Arnold LM. Efficacy and safety of duloxetine for treatment of
fibromyalgia in patients with or without major depressive disorder: Results from a 6-
month, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, fixed-dose trial. Pain 136(3):
432-444, 6/2008.
8. Rutledge DN, Jones CJ. Effects of topical essential oil on exercise volume after a
12-week exercise program for women with fibromyalgia: A pilot study. Journal of
Alternative and Complementary Medicine 13(10): 1099-1106, 12/2007.
HIV/AIDS
1. Breitbart W, McDonald MV, Rosenfeld B, Passik SD, Hewitt D, Thaler H, Portenoy
RK. Pain in ambulatory AIDS patients. I: Pain characteristics and medical
correlates. Pain 68(2-3): 315-321, 12/1996.
2. Breitbart W, Rosenfeld BD, Passik SD, McDonald MV, Thaler H, Portenoy RK. The
undertreatment of pain in ambulatory AIDS patients. Pain 65(2-3): 243-249, 5/1996.
3. Breitbart W, Rosenfeld B, Passik S, Kaim M, Funesti-Esch J, Stein K. A comparison
of pain report and adequacy of analgesic therapy in ambulatory AIDS patients with
and without a history of substance abuse. Pain 72(1-2): 235-243, 8/1997.
4. Breitbart W, Passik S, McDonald MV, Rosenfeld B, Smith M, Kaim M, Funesti-Esch
J. Patient-related barriers to pain management in ambulatory AIDS patients. Pain
76(1-2): 9-16, 5/1998.
5. Griswold GA, Evans S, Spielman L, Fishman B. Coping strategies of HIV patients
with peripheral neuropathy. AIDS Care 17(6): 711-720, 8/2005.
6. Hoyt MJ, Nokes K, Newshan G, Staats JA, Thorn M. The effect of chemical
dependency on pain perception in persons with AIDS. J Assoc Nurses AIDS Care
5(3): 33-38, 5/1994.
7. Larue F, Fontaine A, Colleau SM. Underestimation and undertreatment of pain in
HIV disease: multicentre study. BMJ 314(7073): 23-28, 1/1997.
8. Newshan G, Lefkowitz M. Transdermal fentanyl for chronic pain in AIDS: a pilot
study. J Pain Symptom Manage 21(1): 69-77, 1/2001.

31
9. Simmonds MJ, Novy D, Sandoval R. The differential influence of pain and fatigue
on physical performance and health status in ambulatory patients with human
immunodeficiency virus. Clin J Pain 21(3): 200-206, 5/2005.
10. Smith MY, Egert J, Winkel G, Jacobson J. The impact of PTSD on pain experience
in persons with HIV/AIDS. Pain 98(1-2): 9-17, 7/2002.
11. von Gunten CF, Eappen S, Cleary JF, Taylor SG, Moots P, Regevik N, Cleeland C,
Celia D. Flecainide for the treatment of chronic neuropathic pain: A Phase II trial.
Palliat Med 21(8): 667-672, 2007.
Minority Studies
1. Breitbart W, McDonald MV, Rosenfeld B, Passik SD, Hewitt D, Thaler H, Portenoy
RK. Pain in ambulatory AIDS patients. I: Pain characteristics and medical
correlates. Pain 68(2-3): 315-321, 12/1996.
2. Castel LD, Abernethy AP, Li Y, Depuy V, Saville BR, Hartmann KE. Hazards for
pain severity and pain interference with daily living, with exploration of brief pain
inventory cutpoints, among women with metastatic breast cancer. J Pain Symptom
Manage 34(4): 380-392, 10/2007.
3. Castel LD, Saville BR, Depuy V, Godley PA, Hartmann KE, Abernethy AP. Racial
differences in pain during 1 year among women with metastatic breast cancer: a
hazards analysis of interval-censored data. Cancer 112(1): 162-170, 1/2008.
4. Cleeland CS, Gonin R, Baez L, Loehrer P, Pandya KJ. Pain and treatment of pain
in minority patients with cancer. The Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Minority
Outpatient Pain Study. Ann Intern Med 127(9): 813-816, 11/1997.
5. Meghani SH, Keane A. Preference for analgesic treatment for cancer pain among
African Americans. J Pain Symptom Manage 34(2): 136-147, 8/2007.
6. Poleshuck EL, Giles DE, Tu X. Pain and depressive symptoms among financially
disadvantaged women's health patients. J Womens Health (Larchmt ) 15(2): 182-
193, 3/2006.

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Neuromuscular Pain
1. Abe Y, Miyashita M, Ito N, Shirai Y, Momose Y, Ichikawa Y, Tsuji S, Kazuma K.
Attitude of outpatients with neuromuscular diseases in Japan to pain and use of
analgesics. J Neurol Sci 267(1-2): 22-27, 4/2008.
2. Ang D, Kesavalu R, Lydon JR, Lane KA, Bigatti S. Exercise-based motivational
interviewing for female patients with fibromyalgia: a case series. Clin Rheumatol
26(11): 1843-1849, 11/2007.
3. Babic-Naglic D. [The diagnostics of chronic musculoskeletal pain]. Reumatizam
54(2): 32-36, 2007.
4. Breuer B, Pappagallo M, Knotkova H, Guleyupoglu N, Wallenstein S, Portenoy RK.
A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, two-period, crossover, pilot trial of
lamotrigine in patients with central pain due to multiple sclerosis. Clinical
Therapeutics 29(9): 2022-2030, 9/2007.
5. Bryce TN, Norrbrink C, Cardenas DD, Dijkers M, Felix ER, Finnerup NB, Kennedy
P, Lundeberg T, Richards JS, Rintala DH, Siddall P, Widerstrom-Noga E. From the
2006 NIDRR SCI measures meeting - Pain after spinal cord injury: An evidence-
based review for clinical practice and research. Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine
30(5): 421-440, 2007.
6. Chae J, Yu DT, Walker ME, Kirsteins A, Elovic EP, Flanagan SR, Harvey RL,
Zorowitz RD, Frost FS, Grill JH, Fang ZP. Intramuscular electrical stimulation for
hemiplegic shoulder pain: a 12-month follow-up of a multiple-center, randomized
clinical trial. Am J Phys Med Rehabil 84(11): 832-842, 11/2005.
7. Chae J, Ng A, Yu DT, Kirsteins A, Elovic EP, Flanagan SR, Harvey RL, Zorowitz
RD, Fang ZP. Intramuscular electrical stimulation for shoulder pain in hemiplegia:
does time from stroke onset predict treatment success? Neurorehabil Neural Repair
21(6): 561-567, 11-12/2007.
8. Chae J, Mascarenhas D, Yu DT, Kirsteins A, Elovic EP, Flanagan SR, Harvey RL,
Zorowitz RD, Fang ZP. Poststroke shoulder pain: its relationship to motor
impairment, activity limitation, and quality of life. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 88(3): 298-
301, 3/2007.

33
9. Dalpiaz AS, Dodds TA. Myofascial pain response to topical lidocaine patch therapy:
case report. J Pain Palliat Care Pharmacother 16(1): 99-104, 2002.
10. Dalpiaz AS, Lordon SP, Lipman AG. Topical lidocaine patch therapy for myofascial
pain. J Pain Palliat Care Pharmacother 18(3): 15-34, 2004.
11. Damush TM, Wu J, Bair MJ, Sutherland JM, Kroenke K. Self-management
practices among primary care patients with musculoskeletal pain and depression. J
Behav Med 31(4): 301-307, 8/2008.
12. Djaldetti R, Yust-Katz S, Kolianov V, Melamed E, Dabby R. The effect of duloxetine
on primary pain symptoms in Parkinson disease. Clin Neuropharmacol 30(4): 201-
205, 7/2007.
13. Ehde DM, Osborne TL, Hanley MA, Jensen MP, Kraft GH. The scope and nature of
pain in persons with multiple sclerosis. Mult Scler 12(5): 629-638, 10/2006.
14. Guy-Coichard C, Nguyen DT, Delorme T, Boureau F. Pain in hereditary
neuromuscular disorders and myasthenia gravis: a national survey of frequency,
characteristics, and impact. J Pain Symptom Manage 35(1): 40-50, 1/2008.
15. Harris JE, Eng JJ. Individuals with the dominant hand affected following stroke
demonstrate less impairment than those with the nondominant hand affected.
Neurorehabil Neural Repair 20(3): 380-389, 9/2006.
16. Harris JE, Eng JJ. Paretic upper-limb strength best explains arm activity in people
with stroke. Physical Therapy 87(1): 88-97, 1/2007.
17. Iolascon G, Gimigliano F, Gimigliano R. PR_279: Pain in Stroke Survivors:
Epidemiology and Impact on Functional Outcome. Archives of Physical Medicine
and Rehabilitation 87(11): e51, 11/2006.
18. Jensen MP, Hoffman AJ, Cardenas DD. Chronic pain in individuals with spinal cord
injury: a survey and longitudinal study. Spinal Cord 43(12): 704-712, 12/2005.
19. Jensen MP, Abresch RT, Carter GT, McDonald CM. Chronic pain in persons with
neuromuscular disease. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 86(6): 1155-1163, 6/2005.
20. Kong KH, Woon VC, Yang SY. Prevalence of chronic pain and its impact on health-
related quality of life in stroke survivors. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 85(1): 35-40,
1/2004.

34
21. Lang E, Eisele R, Jankowsky H, Kastner S, Liebig K, Martus P, Neundorfer B.
[Outcome quality of treatment for chronic low back pain under primary care
conditions]. Schmerz 14(3): 146-159, 6/2000.
22. Lang E, Liebig K, Kastner S, Neundorfer B, Heuschmann P. Multidisciplinary
rehabilitation versus usual care for chronic low back pain in the community: effects
on quality of life. Spine J 3(4): 270-276, 7/2003.
23. Lee MA, Walker RW, Hildreth TJ, Prentice WM. A survey of pain in idiopathic
Parkinson's disease. J Pain Symptom Manage 32(5): 462-469, 11/2006.
24. Nalamachu S, Crockett RS, Gammaitoni AR, Gould EM. A Comparison of the
Lidocaine Patch 5% vs Naproxen 500 mg Twice Daily for the Relief of Pain
Associated With Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: A 6-Week, Randomized, Parallel-Group
Study. MedGenMed 8(3): 33, 2006.
25. Nalamachu S, Crockett RS, Mathur D. Lidocaine patch 5 for carpal tunnel
syndrome: how it compares with injections: a pilot study. J Fam Pract 55(3): 209-
214, 3/2006.
26. Osborne TL, Raichle KA, Jensen MP, Ehde DM, Kraft G. The reliability and validity
of pain interference measures in persons with multiple sclerosis. J Pain Symptom
Manage 32(3): 217-229, 9/2006.
27. Raichle KA, Osborne TL, Jensen MP, Cardenas D. The reliability and validity of
pain interference measures in persons with spinal cord injury. J Pain 7(3): 179-186,
3/2006.
28. Renzenbrink GJ, IJzerman MJ. Percutaneous neuromuscular electrical stimulation
(P-NMES) for treating shoulder pain in chronic hemiplegia. Effects on shoulder pain
and quality of life. Clin Rehabil 18(4): 359-365, 6/2004.
29. Sawatzky BJ, Slobogean GP, Reilly CW, Chambers CT, Hol AT. Prevalence of
shoulder pain in adult- versus childhood-onset wheelchair users: a pilot study. J
Rehabil Res Dev 42(3 Suppl 1): 1-8, 5/2005.
30. Sculco AD, Paup DC, Fernhall B, Sculco MJ. Effects of aerobic exercise on low
back pain patients in treatment. Spine J 1(2): 95-101, 3/2001.

35
31. Shah RR, Haghpanah S, Elovic EP, Flanagan SR, Behnegar A, Nguyen V, Page
SJ, Fang ZP, Chae J. MRI Findings in the Painful Poststroke Shoulder. Stroke
39(6): 1808-1813, 6/2008.
32. Tyler EJ, Jensen MP, Engel JM, Schwartz L. The reliability and validity of pain
interference measures in persons with cerebral palsy. Arch Phys Med Rehabil
83(2): 236-239, 2/2002.
33. Wallace M, Rauck RL, Moulin D, Thipphawong J, Khanna S, Tudor IC. Once-daily
OROS((R)) hydromorphone for the management of chronic nonmalignant pain: a
dose-conversion and titration study. Int J Clin Pract 61(10): 1671-1676, 10/2007.
34. Wallace M, Skowronski R, Khanna S, Tudor IC, Thipphawong J. Efficacy and safety
evaluation of once-daily OROS hydromorphone in patients with chronic low back
pain: a pilot open-label study (DO-127). Curr Med Res Opin 23(5): 981-989,
5/2007.
35. Yu DT, Chae J, Walker ME, Fang ZP. Percutaneous intramuscular neuromuscular
electric stimulation for the treatment of shoulder subluxation and pain in patients
with chronic hemiplegia: a pilot study. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 82(1): 20-25, 1/2001.
36. Yu DT, Chae J, Walker ME, Kirsteins A, Elovic EP, Flanagan SR, Harvey RL,
Zorowitz RD, Frost FS, Grill JH, Feldstein M, Fang ZP. Intramuscular
neuromuscular electric stimulation for poststroke shoulder pain: a multicenter
randomized clinical trial. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 85(5): 695-704, 5/2004.
Neuropathic Pain
1. Backonja MM, Stacey B. Neuropathic pain symptoms relative to overall pain rating.
J Pain 5(9): 491-497, 11/2004.
2. Clermont-Gnamien S, Atlani S, Attal N, Le MF, Guirimand F, Brasseur L. [The
therapeutic use of D9-tetrahydrocannabinol (dronabinol) in refractory neuropathic
pain]. Presse Med 31(39 Pt 1): 1840-1845, 11/2002.
3. Coplan PM, Schmader K, Nikas A, Chan IS, Choo P, Levin MJ, Johnson G, Bauer
M, Williams HM, Kaplan KM, Guess HA, Oxman MN. Development of a measure of

36
the burden of pain due to herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia for prevention
trials: adaptation of the brief pain inventory. J Pain 5(6): 344-356, 8/2004.
4. Erdemoglu AK, Varlibas A. Effectiveness of oxcarbazepine in symptomatic
treatment of painful diabetic neuropathy. Neurol India 54(2): 173-177, 6/2006.
5. Freynhagen R, Grond S, Schupfer G, Hagebeuker A, Schmelz M, Ziegler D, Von
Giesen HJ, Junker U, Wagner KJ, Konrad C. Efficacy and safety of pregabalin in
treatment refractory patients with various neuropathic pain entities in clinical
routine. International Journal of Clinical Practice 61(12): 1989-1996, 12/2007.
6. Gore M, Brandenburg NA, Dukes E, Hoffman DL, Tai KS, Stacey B. Pain severity in
diabetic peripheral neuropathy is associated with patient functioning, symptom
levels of anxiety and depression, and sleep. J Pain Symptom Manage 30(4): 374-
385, 10/2005.
7. Gore M, Brandenburg NA, Hoffman DL, Tai KS, Stacey B. Burden of illness in
painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy: the patients' perspectives. J Pain 7(12): 892-
900, 12/2006.
8. Hardy JR, Rees EA, Gwilliam B, Ling J, Broadley K, A'hern R. A phase II study to
establish the efficacy and toxicity of sodium valproate in patients with cancer-
related neuropathic pain. J Pain Symptom Manage 21(3): 204-209, 3/2001.
9. Katz NP, Gammaitoni AR, Davis MW, Dworkin RH. Lidocaine patch 5% reduces
pain intensity and interference with quality of life in patients with postherpetic
neuralgia: an effectiveness trial. Pain Med 3(4): 324-332, 12/2002.
10. McDermott AM, Toelle TR, Rowbotham DJ, Schaefer CP, Dukes EM. The burden
of neuropathic pain: results from a cross-sectional survey. Eur J Pain 10(2): 127-
135, 2/2006.
11. Patarica Huber E, Pjevic M. 526 Therapy related neuropathic pain in breast cancer
patients and its treatment. European Journal of Pain 10(Supplement 1): S139,
9/2006.
12. Raskin J, Wang F, Pritchett YL, Goldstein DJ. Duloxetine for patients with diabetic
peripheral neuropathic pain: a 6-month open-label safety study. Pain Med 7(5):
373-385, 9/2006.

37
13. Schmader KE, Sloane R, Pieper C, Coplan PM, Nikas A, Saddier P, Chan IS, Choo
P, Levin MJ, Johnson G, Williams HM, Oxman MN. The impact of acute herpes
zoster pain and discomfort on functional status and quality of life in older adults.
Clin J Pain 23(6): 490-496, 7/2007.
14. Semenchuk MR, Sherman S. Effectiveness of tizanidine in neuropathic pain: an
open-label study. J Pain 1(4): 285-292, 2000.
15. Tolle T, Xu X, Sadosky AB. Painful diabetic neuropathy: a cross-sectional survey of
health state impairment and treatment patterns. J Diabetes Complications 20(1):
26-33, 1/2006.
16. Tolle T, Dukes E, Sadosky A. Patient burden of trigeminal neuralgia: results from a
cross-sectional survey of health state impairment and treatment patterns in six
European countries. Pain Pract 6(3): 153-160, 9/2006.
17. von Gunten CF, Eappen S, Cleary JF, Taylor SG, Moots P, Regevik N, Cleeland C,
Celia D. Flecainide for the treatment of chronic neuropathic pain: A Phase II trial.
Palliative Medicine 21(8): 667-672, 2007.
18. Wardell DW, Rintala DH, Duan Z, Tan G. A pilot study of healing touch and
progressive relaxation for chronic neuropathic pain in persons with spinal cord
injury. J Holist Nurs 24(4): 231-240, 12/2006.
19. White S. Assessment of chronic neuropathic pain and the use of pain tools. Br J
Nurs 13(7): 372-378, 4/2004.
20. White WT, Patel N, Drass M, Nalamachu S. Lidocaine patch 5% with systemic
analgesics such as gabapentin: a rational polypharmacy approach for the treatment
of chronic pain. Pain Med 4(4): 321-330, 12/2003.
21. Wu EQ, Borton J, Said G, Le TK, Monz B, Rosilio M, Avoinet S. Estimated
prevalence of peripheral neuropathy and associated pain in adults with diabetes in
France. Curr Med Res Opin 23(9): 2035-2042, 9/2007.
22. Zakrzewska JM, Lopez BC, Kim SE, Varian EA, Coakham HB. Patient satisfaction
after surgery for trigeminal neuralgia - development of a questionnaire. Acta
Neurochir (Wien ) 147(9): 925-932, 9/2005.

38
Osteoarthritis and Other Joint Diseases
1. Measuring quality of life in women with osteoporosis. Osteoporosis Quality of Life
Study Group. Osteoporos Int 7(5): 478-487, 1997.
2. Brinker MR, O'connor DP. Outcomes of tibial nonunion in older adults following
treatment using the Ilizarov method. J Orthop Trauma 21(9): 634-642, 10/2007.
3. Brinker MR, O'connor DP, Crouch CC, Mehlhoff TL, Bennett JB. Ilizarov Treatment
of Infected Nonunions of the Distal Humerus After Failure of Internal Fixation: An
Outcomes Study. J Orthop Trauma 21(3): 178-184, 3/2007.
4. Coats TL, Borenstein DG, Nangia NK, Brown MT. Effects of valdecoxib in the
treatment of chronic low back pain: results of a randomized, placebo-controlled trial.
Clin Ther 26(8): 1249-1260, 8/2004.
5. Cowan DT, Wilson-Barnett J, Griffiths P, Vaughan DJ, Gondhia A, Allan LG. A
randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over pilot study to assess the
effects of long-term opioid drug consumption and subsequent abstinence in chronic
noncancer pain patients receiving controlled-release morphine. Pain Med 6(2): 113-
121, 3/2005.
6. Galer BS, Sheldon E, Patel N, Codding C, Burch F, Gammaitoni AR. Topical
lidocaine patch 5% may target a novel underlying pain mechanism in osteoarthritis.
Curr Med Res Opin 20(9): 1455-1458, 9/2004.
7. Gammaitoni AR, Galer BS, Lacouture P, Domingos J, Schlagheck T. Effectiveness
and safety of new oxycodone/acetaminophen formulations with reduced
acetaminophen for the treatment of low back pain. Pain Med 4(1): 21-30, 3/2003.
8. Gerber L, el-Gabalawy H, Arayssi T, Furst G, Yarboro C, Schumacher HR.
Polyarticular arthritis, independent of rheumatoid factor, is associated with poor
functional outcome in recent onset inflammatory synovitis. Journal of Back and
Musculoskeletal Rehabilitation 14(3): 105-109, 2000.
9. Gerber LH, Furst G, Yarboro C, el-Gabalawy H. Number of active joints, not
diagnosis, is the primary determinant of function and performance in early synovitis.
Clin Exp Rheumatol 21(5 Suppl 31): S65-S70, 9/2003.

39
10. Gimbel J, Linn R, Hale M, Nicholson B. Lidocaine patch treatment in patients with
low back pain: results of an open-label, nonrandomized pilot study. Am J Ther
12(4): 311-319, 7/2005.
11. Gorodetskyi IG, Gorodnichenko AI, Tursin PS, Reshetnyak VK, Uskov ON. Non-
invasive interactive neurostimulation in the post-operative recovery of patients with
a trochanteric fracture of the femur. Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery-British
Volume 89B(11): 1488-1494, 11/2007.
12. Gould E, Ma T. Back pain. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 87(11):
e38, 11/2006.
13. Kapstad H, Hanestad BR, Langeland N, Rustoen T, Stavem K. Cutpoints for mild,
moderate and severe pain in patients with osteoarthritis of the hip or knee ready for
joint replacement surgery. BMC Musculoskelet Disord 9(1): 55, 4/2008.
14. Kelly MH, Brillante B, Collins MT. Pain in fibrous dysplasia of bone: age-related
changes and the anatomical distribution of skeletal lesions. Osteoporos Int 19(1):
57-63, 1/2008.
15. Kelly MH, Brillante B, Collins MT. Pain in fibrous dysplasia of bone: age-related
changes and the anatomical distribution of skeletal lesions. Osteoporos Int 19(1):
57-63, 1/2008.
16. Markenson JA, Croft J, Zhang PG, Richards P. Treatment of persistent pain
associated with osteoarthritis with controlled-release oxycodone tablets in a
randomized controlled clinical trial. Clin J Pain 21(6): 524-535, 11/2005.
17. McDonald C, Wilson M, Todd J. 686 Butrans (Buprenorphine) Transdermal Patches
Improve Quality of Life in patients with Osteoarthritis(OA). European Journal of
Pain 10(Supplement 1): S179, 9/2006.
18. Mystakidou K, Parpa E, Tsilika E, Mavromati A, Smyrniotis V, Georgaki S, Vlahos
L. Long-term management of noncancer pain with transdermal therapeutic system-
fentanyl. J Pain 4(6): 298-306, 8/2003.
19. Pavelka K, Le L, X, Bjorneboe O, Herrero-Beaumont G, Richarz U. Benefits of
transdermal fentanyl in patients with rheumatoid arthritis or with osteoarthritis of the

40
knee or hip: an open-label study to assess pain control. Curr Med Res Opin 20(12):
1967-1977, 12/2004.
20. Portenoy RK, Farrar JT, Backonja MM, Cleeland CS, Yang K, Friedman M, Colucci
SV, Richards P. Long-term Use of Controlled-release Oxycodone for Noncancer
Pain: Results of a 3-year Registry Study. Clin J Pain 23(4): 287-299, 5/2007.
21. Rosenthal M, Moore P, Groves E, Iwan T, Schlosser LG, Dziewanowska Z, Negro-
Vilar A. Sleep improves when patients with chronic OA pain are managed with
morning dosing of once a day extended-release morphine sulfate (AVINZA):
findings from a pilot study. J Opioid Manag 3(3): 145-154, 5/2007.
22. Thie NM, Prasad NG, Major PW. Evaluation of glucosamine sulfate compared to
ibuprofen for the treatment of temporomandibular joint osteoarthritis: a randomized
double blind controlled 3 month clinical trial. J Rheumatol 28(6): 1347-1355,
6/2001.
23. Williams,V.S.; Smith,M.Y.; Fehnel,S.E. The validity and utility of the BPI
interference measures for evaluating the impact of osteoarthritic pain. J Pain
Symptom Manage 31(1): 48-57, 1/2006.
Psychosocial Studies
1. Babic-Naglic D. [The diagnostics of chronic musculoskeletal pain]. Reumatizam
54(2): 32-36, 2007.
2. Ehde DM, Osborne TL, Hanley MA, Jensen MP, Kraft GH. The scope and nature of
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Language Translations
1. Badia X, Muriel C, Gracia A, Nunez-Olarte JM, Perulero N, Galvez R, Carulla J,
Cleeland CS. [Validation of the Spanish version of the Brief Pain Inventory in
patients with oncological pain]. Med Clin (Barc) 120(2): 52-59, 1/2003.
2. Caraceni A, Mendoza TR, Mencaglia E, Baratella C, Edwards K, Forjaz MJ, Martini
C, Serlin RC, de CF, Cleeland CS. A validation study of an Italian version of the
Brief Pain Inventory (Breve Questionario per la Valutazione del Dolore). Pain 65(1):
87-92, 4/1996.
3. Ger LP, Ho ST, Sun WZ, Wang MS, Cleeland CS. Validation of the Brief Pain
Inventory in a Taiwanese population. J Pain Symptom Manage 18(5): 316-322,
11/1999.
4. Kalyadina SA, Ionova TI, Ivanova MO, Uspenskaya OS, Kishtovich AV, Mendoza
TR, Guo H, Novik A, Cleeland CS, Wang XS. Russian Brief Pain Inventory:
validation and application in cancer pain. J Pain Symptom Manage 35(1): 95-102,
1/2008.
5. Klepstad P, Loge JH, Borchgrevink PC, Mendoza TR, Cleeland CS, Kaasa S. The
Norwegian brief pain inventory questionnaire: translation and validation in cancer
pain patients. J Pain Symptom Manage 24(5): 517-525, 11/2002.
6. Mystakidou K, Mendoza T, Tsilika E, Befon S, Parpa E, Bellos G, Vlahos L,
Cleeland C. Greek brief pain inventory: validation and utility in cancer pain.
Oncology 60(1): 35-42, 2001.
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