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Intensive Care Vasoactive Continuous Infusion Titration - Adult - Inpatient [18]

Intensive Care Vasoactive Continuous Infusion Titration - Adult - Inpatient [18] - Clinical Hub, UW Health Clinical Tool Search, UW Health Clinical Tool Search, Delegation/Practice Protocols, Inpatient Delegation Protocols





Delegation Protocol Number: 18

Delegation Protocol Title:
Intensive Care Vasoactive Continuous Infusion Titration - Adult - Inpatient

Delegation Protocol Applies To:
UW Health critical care patient in an adult Intensive Care Unit (ICU) or the Emergency Department (ED)

Target Patient Population:
Any adult critical care patient requiring a titratable vasoactive agent as identified in Table 1.

Delegation Protocol Champions:
Jeff Wells, MD – Department of Medicine - Pulmonary
Jonathan Ketzler, MD – Department of Anesthesia
Joshua Medow, MD – Department of Neurosurgery

Delegation Protocol Reviewers:
Jeff Fish, PharmD - Clinical Pharmacist
Carin Endres, PharmD - Drug Policy Program
Andrea Stapelman, RN, Clinical Nurse Specialist – Trauma, Life Support
Margaret Murray, RN, Clinical Nurse Specialist – Cardiac Surgery
Stephanie Kraus, RN, Clinical Nurse Specialist – Cardiology
Eileen Burgenske, RN, Clinical Nurse Specialist – Neurosurgery
Alazda Kaun, RN, Clinical Nurse Specialist - Burn

Responsible Department:
Department of Pharmacy

Purpose Statement:
To delegate authority from the ordering provider to Registered Nurses (RNs) in the intensive care units
and emergency department to titrate vasoactive agents infusions in critically ill adults and to
provide a framework for the ordering, initiation and titration of these agents.

Who May Carry Out This Delegation Protocol:
Any Registered Nurse (RN) in an adult ICU or ED

Guidelines for Implementation:
1. A provider enters an order for a vasoactive agent with an initial starting dose. The order must
include instructions for titration per Intensive Care Vasoactive Continuous Infusion Titration – Adult
- Inpatient Protocol, with a targeted objective response (such as mean arterial pressure or heart
rate). If patient status necessitates titration outside of Table 1, then the protocol cannot be
implemented.
2. The rate and frequency of dose titration is dependent upon the patient’s individual hemodynamic
parameters, clinical status, and response to therapy, but will not occur more frequently than
indicated in the “Titration Dose Increment” and “Rate of Titration” columns of Table 1.
3. The lowest effective dose achieving the stated objective response will be utilized. The nurse records
each dose increase or decrease in the IV/IV MAR. Vital signs will be monitored and documented
Copyright © 2017 University of Wisconsin Hospitals and Clinics Authority
Contact: Lee Vermeulen, CCKM@uwhealth.org Last Revised:
 
11/2017CCKM@uwhealth.org


with each rate change while on a stable continuous infusion, with minimum vital sign
documentation being hourly. If the patient requires frequent or emergent dose titration, the
patient will have continuous or cycled monitoring of vital signs. Vital signs and rate will then be
documented at least every 15 minutes until vital signs stable.
4. If the dose of the vasoactive agent reaches the maximum ordered dose as listed in Table 1, the
provider must be notified for consideration of an additional agent or to order dose escalation
outside of the protocol.
5. When additional vasoactive agents are ordered subsequent to the initial vasoactive agent, the
following titration will occur:
5.1. The initial agent or agents will remain at the current rate
5.2. Subsequent vasoactive agents, except vasopressin, will be titrated up according to the
“Titration Dose Increment” and “Rate of Titration” columns of Table 1
5.3. If vasopressin is added per protocol, it will be initiated at the “Typical Starting Dose” listed in
table 1 or per provider order, and the dose will not be titrated up without a provider order
6. Initiation of weaning the vasoactive medication(s) to off occurs after the patient maintains their
blood pressure at goal for 1-2 hours or as directed after other therapies are begun. Vasoactive
infusions will be titrated off in the reverse order as they were started unless directed by the
provider. Vasoactive infusions will be weaned off as indicated in the “Titration Dose Increment” and
“Rate of Titration” columns of Table 1 based on reverse order of initiation.


Copyright © 2017 University of Wisconsin Hospitals and Clinics Authority
Contact: Lee Vermeulen, CCKM@uwhealth.org Last Revised:
 
11/2017CCKM@uwhealth.org



Table 1. Vasoactive Titration Table

Drug

Typical Dose
Range

Typical Starting
Dose

Titration Dose
Increment

Rate of
Titration
Maximum ordered
Dose
(notify provider when
dose reached)
Diltiazem 1-20 mg/hr 2.5-5 mg/hr
b
2.5 mg/hr 30-60 min 20 mg/hr
Dobutamine 2-20 mcg/kg/min 2 mcg/kg/min 2.5 mcg/kg/min 5-15 min 20 mcg/kg/min
Dopamine 2-20 mcg/kg/min 2-5 mcg/kg/min
a
1-5 mcg/kg/min
a
1-15 min 20 mcg/kg/min
Epinephrine
0.01mcg/kg/min
to effect
0.02-0.1 mcg/kg/min
a
0.01-0.05 mcg/kg/min
a
1-15 min 2 mcg/kg/min
Esmolol 50-300 mcg/kg/min 25-50 mcg/kg/min
b
50 mcg/kg/min 5-20 min 300 mcg/kg/min
Labetalol 5-180 mg/hr 10 mg/hr 10 mg/hr 10-30 min 180 mg/hr
Milrinone
0.375-0.75
mcg/kg/min
0.375 mcg/kg/min 0.125 mcg/kg/min 15-30 min 0.75 mcg/kg/min
Nicardipine 2.5-15 mg/hr 2.5-5 mg/hr
b
2.5 mg/hr 15-30 min 15 mg/hr
Nitroglycerin
(mcg/min)
5-300 mcg/min 5-10 mcg/min
b
5-20 mcg/min
b
5-15 min 300 mcg/min
Nitroglycerin
(mcg/kg/min)
0.1-3 mcg/kg/min 0.2-0.3 mcg/kg/min
b
0.2-0.5 mcg/kg/min
b
5-15 min 3 mcg/kg/min
Nitroprusside 0.1-10 mcg/kg/min 0.1 mcg/kg/min 0.25-0.5 mcg/kg/min
b
1-15 min 10 mcg/kg/min
Norepinephrine
0.01 mcg/kg/min
to effect
0.02-0.1 mcg/kg/min
a
0.01-0.05 mcg/kg/min
a
1-15 min 2 mcg/kg/min
Phenylephrine
0.25 mcg/kg/min
to effect
0.25-1 mcg/kg/min
a
0.25-0.5 mcg/kg/min
a
1-15 min 5 mcg/kg/min

Vasopressin
(septic shock)

0.01-0.06 units/min

0.03 units/min
Do not increase rate
without MD order.
Wean off by 0.01
unit/min

30-60 min

0.06 units/min
a. To treat hypotension: For patients with moderate shock (i.e: a mean arterial pressure (MAP) of 50 mm Hg up to their MAP goal), the
RN may start on the low to middle end of the range. For patients with severe shock (i.e. MAP less than 50 mmHg), the RN may start
in the middle to high end of the range. If unclear as to which dose to initiate, the RN should consult with unit pharmacist or provider.
b. To treat hypertension: the RN may start on the high end of the range. If using the medication for another indication and systolic blood
pressure is <100 mmHg, the RN may start on the low end of the range. If unclear as to which dose to initiate, the RN should consult with
unit pharmacist or provider.
Copyright © 2017 University of Wisconsin Hospitals and Clinics Authority
Contact: Lee Vermeulen, CCKM@uwhealth.org Last Revised:
 
11/2017CCKM@uwhealth.org



Order Mode: Protocol/Policy, Without Cosign

References:
1. Mullner M, Urbanek B, Havel C, Losert H, Waechter F, Gamper G. Vasopressors for shock. Cochrane
Database Syst Rev. 2004:CD003709.
2. Overgaard CB, Dzavik V. Inotropes and vasopressors: review of physiology and clinical use in
cardiovascular disease. Circulation. 2008;118:1047-1056.
3. Ellender TJ, Skinner JC. The use of vasopressors and inotropes in the emergency medical treatment
of shock. Emerg Med Clin North Am. 2008;26:759-786, ix.
4. Dunser MW, Mayr AJ, Ulmer H, et al. Arginine vasopressin in advanced vasodilatory shock: a
prospective, randomized, controlled study. Circulation. 2003;107:2313-2319.
5. Yancy CW, Jessup M, Bozkurt B, et al. 2013 ACCF/AHA guideline for the management of heart
failure: a report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task
Force on Practice Guidelines. J Am Coll Cardiol. Oct 15 2013;62(16):e147-239.Antman EM, Anbe DT,
Armstrong PW, et al. ACC/AHA guidelines for the management of patients with ST-elevation
myocardial infarction; A report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association
Task Force on Practice Guidelines (Committee to Revise the 1999 Guidelines for the Management of
patients with acute myocardial infarction). J Am Coll Cardiol. 2004;44:E1-E211.
6. Marik PE, Varon J. Hypertensive crises: challenges and management. Chest. 2007;131:1949-1962.
7. Rhoney D, Peacock WF. Intravenous Therapy for hypertensive emergencies, part 1. Am J Health Syst
Pharm. 2009;66:1343-1352.
8. Dellinger RP, Levy MM, Rhodes A, et al. Surviving Sepsis Campaign: international guidelines for
management of severe sepsis and septic shock, 2012. Intensive Care Med. Feb 2013;39(2):165-228.
9. De Backer D, Biston P, Devriendt J, et al. Comparison of dopamine and norepinephrine in the
treatment of shock. N Engl J Med. Mar 4 2010;362(9):779-789.
10. Curran MP, Robinson DM, Keating GM. Intravenous nicardipine: its use in the short-term treatment
of hypertension and various other indications. Drugs. 2006;66(13):1755-1782.

Collateral Documents/Tools:
UW Health Vasoactive Continuous Infusions in Adult Patients – Adult – Inpatient Clinical Practice
Guideline

Approved By:
UWHC Critical Care Committee: June 2010; August 2014*; June 2017
UW Health Nursing Practice Committee: June 2010; September 2014*; August 2017
UWHC Pharmacy Practice Committee: May 2010; October 2014*; June 2017
UWCH Pharmacy and Therapeutics Committee: May 2010; September 2014*, August 2017
UWHC Medical Board: June 2010; October 2014*; *September 2017

Effective Date: September 2017

Scheduled for Review: September 2020
• Expedited Review Process
Copyright © 2017 University of Wisconsin Hospitals and Clinics Authority
Contact: Lee Vermeulen, CCKM@uwhealth.org Last Revised:
 
11/2017CCKM@uwhealth.org